• Qian Yin

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Combinative effects of a bacterial type-III effector and a biocontrol bacterium on rice growth and disease resistance

      Haiying Ren Ganyu Gu Juying Longa Qian Yin Tingquan Wu Tao Song Shujian Zhang Zhiyi Chen Hansong Dong

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      Expression of HpaGXoo, a bacterial type-III effector, in transgenic plants induces disease resistance. Resistance also can be elicited by biocontrol bacteria. In both cases, plant growth is often promoted. Here we address whether biocontrol bacteria and HpaGXoo can act together to provide better results in crop improvement. We studied effects ofPseudomonas cepacia on the rice variety R109 and the hpaGXoo-expressing rice line HER1. Compared to R109, HER1 showed increased growth, grain yield, and defense responses toward diseases and salinity stress. Colonization of roots byP. cepacia caused 20% and 13% increase, in contrast to controls, in root growth of R109 and HER1. Growth of leaves and stems also increased in R109 but that of HER 1 was inhibited. WhenP. cepacia colonization was subsequent to plant inoculation withRhizoctonia solani, a pathogen that causes sheath blight, the disease was less severe than controls in both R109 and HER1; HER1, nevertheless, was more resistant, suggesting thatP.cepacia and HpaGXoo cooperate in inducing disease resistance. Several genes that critically regulate growth and defense behaved differentially in HER1 and R109 while responding toP. cepacia. In R109 leaves, theOsARF1 gene, which regulates plant growth, was expressed in consistence with growth promotion byP. cepacia. Inversely,OsARF1 expression was coincident with inhibition in growth of HER1 leaves. In both plants, the expression ofOsEXP1, which encodes an expansin protein involved in plant growth, was concomitant with growth promotion in leaves instead of roots, in response toP. cepacia. We also studiedOsMAPK, a gene that encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase and controls defense responses toward salinity and infection by pathogens in rice. In response toP. cepacia, an early expression ofOsMAPK was coincident with R109 resistance to the disease, while HER1 expressed the gene similarly whetherP. cepacia was present or not. Evidently,P. cepacia and GXoo-gene mediated resistance may act differently in rice growth and resistance. Whereas combinative effectsof P. cepacia and HpaGXoo in disease resistance have a great potential in agricultural use, it is interesting to study mechanisms that underlie interactions involving biocontrol bacteria, type-III effectors and pathogens.

    • Productivity and biochemical properties of green tea in response to full-length and functional fragments of HpaGXooc, a harpin protein from the bacterial rice leaf streak pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola

      Xiaojing Wu Tingquan Wu Juying Long Qian Yin Yong Zhang Lei Chen Ruoxue Liu Tongchun Gao Hansong Dong

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      Harpin proteins from plant pathogenic bacteria can stimulate hypersensitive cell death (HCD), drought tolerance, defence responses against pathogens and insects in plants, as well as enhance plant growth. Recently, we identified nine functional fragments of HpaGXooc, a harpin protein from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the pathogen that causes bacterial leaf streak in rice. Fragments HpaG1–94, HpaG10–42, and HpaG62–138, which contain the HpaGXooc regions of the amino acid sequence as indicated by the number spans, exceed the parent protein in promoting growth, pathogen defence and HCD in plants. Here we report improved productivity and biochemical properties of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in response to the fragments tested in comparison with HpaGXooc and an inactive protein control. Field tests suggested that the four proteins markedly increased the growth and yield of green tea, and increased the leaf content of tea catechols, a group of compounds that have relevance in the prevention and treatment of human diseases. In particular, HpaG1–94 was more active than HpaGXooc in expediting the growth of juvenile buds and leaves used as green tea material and increased the catechol content of processed teas. When tea shrubs were treated with HpaHXooc and HpaG1–94 compared with a control, green tea yields were over 55% and 39% greater, and leaf catechols were increased by more than 64% and 72%, respectively. The expression of three homologues of the expansin genes, which regulate plant cell growth, and the CsCHS gene encoding a tea chalcone synthase, which critically regulates the biosynthesis of catechols, were induced in germinal leaves of tea plants following treatment with HpaG1–94 or HpaGXooc. Higher levels of gene expression were induced by the application of HpaG1–94 than HpaGXooc. Our results suggest that the harpin protein, especially the functional fragment HpaG1–94, can be used to effectively increase the yield and improve the biochemical properties of green tea, a drink with medicinal properties.

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