• P R Adiga

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Diamine oxidase ofLathyrus sativus seedlings. Purification and properties

      M R Suresh P R Adiga

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      Diamine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6) was purified from 5-day-old etiolated seedlings ofLathyrus sativus by MnCl2 treatment, (NH4)2SO4 and acetone fractionations, DEAE-Sephadex chromatography followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. A single step purification of the enzyme was achieved by using an immunoaffinity column, wherein rabbit antibodies to the homogeneous diamine oxidase were coupled to CNBr-activated Sepharose. The enzyme thus obtained was homogeneous by electrophoretic, immunological and ultracentrifugal criteria. It had anMr of 148,000 (6.46S) and was a dimer with similar sub-units (Mr 75,000). Amino acid analysis showed the absence of cysteine residues although it contained five disulphide bonds. The enzyme had copper (2.7 g atom/mol enzyme) but was not a glycoprotein. No absorption maximum in the visible region was detectable. Ethylenediamine 1,3-diaminopropane and histamine were potent competitive inhibitors for the substrate putrescine. The addition of monospecific antibodies to the enzyme increased the Km for benzyl amine without any change in the Vmax Diamine oxidase from pea seedling, partially purified, exhibited complete crossreactivity with the antibodies to theL. sativus enzyme.

    • Isolation of sheep anterior pituitary messenger RNA and its translation in a heterologous cell-free system

      M S K Prasad P R Adiga

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      A preparation rich in the specific messenger RNA involved in the synthesis of prolactin from sheep anterior pituitary glands was obtained by employing both the immunochemical and affinity techniques. A dose-dependent and efficient stimulation of protein synthesis by the isolated total pituitary RNA as well as poly (A) rich RNA were achieved with the reticulocyte system. The synthesis of prolactin as one of the translational products of this cell-free system was established by specific immunoprecipitation followed by resolution on sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    • Modulation of testicular lutropin receptors in the developing male rat

      M S K Prasad P R Adiga

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      In the developing male rat around 40 days of age, the testis appears to contain the maximum amount of lutropin receptors per unit weight. During this period, circulating levels of testosterone markedly increase without the concomitant major surges in lutropin levels. The increased sensitivity and responsiveness of tests to basal levels of circulating lutropin during this period is accompanied by enhanced serum prolactin levels suggesting that this hormone may be involved in this process. The finding that prolactin treatment of pubertal rats for 3 days induced the formation of more testicular lutropin receptors supports the above premise. However, shortterm immunoneutralisation of endogenous prolactin did not significantly alter the specific binding of [ 125 I ]-labelled lutropin to testicular membranes. Interestingly, during development, a close correction exists between receptor occupancy and capacity of the tissue to bind labelled lutropin. The apparent dissociation between serum lutropin levels, on the one hand and tissue occupancy and free receptor contents on the other, suggests that factors other than lutropin (presumably prolactin) are involved in the modulation of the sensitivity and the responsiveness of the testis to lutropin during early development.

    • Induction of riboflavin-carrier protein in the immature male rat by estrogen: Kinetic and hormonal specificity

      C V Ramana Murty P R Adiga

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      The kinetics of estrogen-induced accumulation of riboflavin-carrier protein in the plasma was investigated in immature male rats using a specific and sensitive homologous radio-immunoassay procedure developed for this purpose. Following a single injection of the steroid hormone, plasma riboflavin-carrier protein levels increased markedly after an initial lag period of approximately 24 h, reaching peak levels around 96 h and declining thereafter. A 1.5 fold amplification of the inductive response was evident on secondary stimulation with the hormone. The magnitude of the response was dependent on hormonal dose, whereas the initial lag phase and the time of peak riboflavin-carrier protein induction were unaltered within the range of the steroid doses (0.1–10 mg/ kg body wt.) tested. Simultaneous administration of progesterone did not affect either the kinetics or the maximum level of the protein induced. The hormonal specificity of this induction was further adduced by the effect of administration of antiestrogens viz., En and Zu chlomiphene citrates, which effectively curtailed hormonal induction of the protein. That the induction involvedde novo-protein synthesis was evident from the complete inhibition obtained upon administration of cycloheximide. Passive immunoneutralization of endogenous riboflavin-carrier protein with antiserum to the homologous protein terminated pregnancy in rats confirming the earlier results with antiserum to chicken riboflavin-carrier protein.

    • Hormonal modulation of reproduction-specific thiamin carrier protein in the rat

      P V Malathy P R Adiga

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      The hormonal modulation of thiamin carrier protein in the plasma and uterine luminal secretion during the normal reproductive phases of the animal (estrous cycle and pregnancy) as well as during experimental estrogenisation was investigated in the rat using a specific and sensitive homologous radioimmunoassay procedure developed for this purpose. Following a single injection of estrogen to immature male rats, thiamin carrier protein rapidly accumulated in plasma attaining peak concentration at 48 h and declining thereafter. A 1.5-fold amplification of the inductive response was observed on secondary stimulation with the hormone. The magnitude of the response exhibited a clear dependency on the dose of the steroid hormone, whereas the time at which peak levels of thiamin carrier protein production was remained unaltered in the concentration range of the steroid tested. The inductive effect of estrogen was severely curtailed by the antiestrogens,viz., En- and Zu-clomiphene citrates, while progesterone was incapable of either modulating the estrogen-induced response or eliciting an induction by itself. Cycloheximide drastically blocked the response to estrogen. Evidence for the ability of uterus to serve as yet another independent site of thiamin carrier protein synthesis was obtained byin vitro incorporation of radioactive amino acids into immunoprecipitable thiamin carrier protein in the tissue explants of estrogenised female rats. The levels of thiamin carrier protein in uterine luminal fluid measured during estrous cycle, pregnancy and experimental estrogenisation exhibited remarkable similarity to the plasma thiamin carrier protein profiles.

    • Purification and characterization of arginine decarboxylase from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings

      G L Prasad P R Adiga

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      A simple, reproducible and rapid protocol for the purification of arginine decarboxylase fromCucumis sativus seedlings has been standardised. The purification steps involved ion-exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-l 50. The purified enzyme preparation migrated as a single stainable band on Polyacrylamide gels at both basic and acidic pH, but under denaturing and reducing conditions on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gels resolved into polypeptides of molecular weight 48,000,44,000 and 15,000. However, in the absence of 2-mercaptoethanol on electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gels, the enzyme moved as single band with a molecular weight of 150,000. Evidence was obtained to indicate that these three polypeptides were probably derived from a single larger molecular weight enzyme. On storage of the purified protein, the 48,000 species was preferentially degraded to smaller polypeptides. The preliminary data suggested that the 48,000 and 44,000 species shared many common tryptic peptides as revealed by finger printing of the [125I ]-labelled protein. The purified enzyme was a glycoprotein and had aKm of 0.5 mM for arginine. Its activity was stimulated by dithiothrietol and pyridoxal phosphate. EDTA did not inhibit the enzyme activity. Mn2+ at 1 mM stimulated arginine decarboxylase activity but was inhibitory at higher concentration

    • Correlation between riboflavin carrier protein induction and its mRNA activity in estrogen stimulated chicken liver and oviduct

      B Durga Kumari P R Adiga

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      Poly A enriched RNA from either liver or oviduct of estradiol-17β treated immature chicks supported [3H]-leucine incorporation into immunoprecipitable riboflavin carrier protein in a dose-dependent manner when translated in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. Primary translation product of riboflavin carrier protein had a molecular weight of 38,000 which on incubation with a stripped hepatic microsomal preparation was processed to a product with a size comparable to native riboflavin carrier protein. Poly A enriched RNA from both the liver and the oviduct of estrogen-treated birds stimulated [3H]-leucine incorporation into riboflavin carrier protein and this was 2–3 fold higher during secondary stimulationvis-a-vis primary stimulation with the steroid. Poly A enriched RNA from the liver of progesteronetreated birds during secondary stimulation did not support riboflavin carrier protein synthesis. In contrast, poly A enriched RNA from the oviduct of the birds treated with progesterone during secondary (but not primary) stimulation did exhibit riboflavin carrier protein-mRNA activity which was comparable to that stimulated by estradiol-17β

    • Decarboxylation of arginine and ornithine by arginine decarboxylase purified from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings

      G L Prasad P R Adiga

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      A purified preparation of arginine decarboxylase fromCucumis sativus seedlings displayed ornithine decarboxylase activity as well. The two decarboxylase activities associated with the single protein responded differentially to agmatine, putrescine andPi. While agmatine was inhibitory (50 %) to arginine decarboxylase activity, ornithine decarboxylase activity was stimulated by about 3-fold by the guanido arnine. Agmatine-stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity was only observed at higher concentrations of the amine. Inorganic phosphate enhanced arginine decarboxylase activity (2-fold) but ornithine decarboxylase activity was largely uninfluenced. Although both arginine and ornithine decarboxylase activities were inhibited by putrescine, ornithine decarboxylase activity was profoundly curtailed even at 1 mM concentration of the diamine. The enzyme-activated irreversible inhibitor for mammalian ornithine decarboxylase,viz. α-difluoromethyl ornithine, dramatically enhanced arginine decarboxylase activity (3–4 fold), whereas ornithine decarboxylase activity was partially (50%) inhibited by this inhibitor. At substrate level concentrations, the decarboxylation of arginine was not influenced by ornithine andvice-versa. Preliminary evidence for the existence of a specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase activity in the crude extracts of the plant is presented. The above results suggest that these two amino acids could be decarboxylated at two different catalytic sites on a single protein.

    • Purification and characterization of putrescine synthase from cucumber seedlings. A multifunctional enzyme involved in putrescine biosynthesis

      G L Prasad P R Adiga

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      The multifunctional enzyme, putrescine synthase has been purified fromCucumis sativus and characterized. This enzyme harbours agmatine iminohydrolase, ornithine transcarbamylase, putrescine transcarbamylase and carbamate kinase activities, whose concerted action results in agmatine → putrescine conversion. The enzyme resolved into two aggregation forms, enzyme aggregated and enzyme monomer upon electrophoresis at pH 8.3. Evidence has been provided by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis that both enzyme aggregated and enzyme monomer comprise of identical polypeptide chains. Under non-reducing conditions on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the protein moves as a single 150 KDa polypeptide; however, in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel elec trophoresis, it migrates as 3 polypeptides of molecular weight 48,000, 44,000 and 15,000. The enzyme undergoes age-dependentin vivo proteolytic degradation from a 66 KDa polypeptide (primary translational product), through 48 KDa polypeptide to 44 KDa species and finally to small molecular weight peptides.

    • Arginine decarboxylase is a component activity of the multifunctional enzyme putrescine synthase in cucumber seedlings

      G L Prasad P R Adiga

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      A homogenous PreParation of Putrescine synthase, the versatile multifunctional enzyme involved in agmatine →Putrescine conversion inCucumis sativus was found to catalyze enzymatic decarboxylation of arginine also. Similarly, the Purified arginine decarboxylase mediated the comPonent as well as the comPlete set of couPled reactions harboured by Putrescine synthase. Both the enzyme PreParations exhibited identical electroPhoretic and chromatograPhic behaviour and were immunologically indistinguishable. All the enzymic activities are stabilized concurrently by feeding arginine to the intact seedlings. Therefore, it is concluded that the multifunctional Putrescine synthase inCucumis sativus seedlings also harbours arginine decarboxylase activity unlike its counterPart inLathyrus sativus.

    • Biochemical and immunological aspects of riboflavin carrier protein

      P R Adiga S S Visweswariah A Karande N Kuzhandhaivelu

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      Riboflavin carrier protein which is obligatorily involved in yolk deposition of the vitamin in the chicken egg, is a unique glycophosphoprotein present in both the yolk and white compartments. The yolk and egg white proteins are products of a single estrogen-inducible gene expressed in the liver and the oviduct respectively of egg laying birds. Despite the fact that the carbohydrate composition of the yolk and white riboflavin carrier proteins differ presumably due to differential post-translational modification, the proteins are immunologically similar and have identical amino acid sequence (including a cluster of 8 phosphoser residues towards the C-terminus) except at the carboxy terminus where the yolk riboflavin carrier protein lacks 13 amino acids as a consequence of proteolytic cleavage during uptake by oocytes. The protein is highly conserved throughout evolution all the way to humans in terms of gross molecular characteristics such as molecular weight and isoelectric point, and in immunological properties, preferential affinity for free riboflavin and estrogen inducibility at the biosynthetic locusviz., liver. Obligatory involvement of the mammalian riboflavin carrier protein in transplacental flavin transport to subserve fetal vitamin nutrition during gestation is revealed by experiments using pregnant rodent or subhuman primate models wherein immunoneutralisation of endogenous maternal riboflavin carrier protein results in fetal wastage followed by pregnancy termination due to selective yet drastic curtailment of vitamin efflux into the fetoplacental unit. Using monoclonal antibodies to chicken riboflavin carrier protein, it could be shown that all the major epitopes of the avian riboflavin carrier protein are highly conserved throughout evolution although the relative affinities of some of the epitopes for different monoclonal antibodies have undergone progressive changes during evolution. Using these monoclonal antibodies, an attempt is being made to map the different epitopes on the riboflavin carrier protein molecule with a view to delineate the immunodominant regions of the vitamin carrier to understand its structure-immunogenicity relationship.

    • Comparison of biotin binding protein of pregnant rat serum with rat serum albumin

      P B Seshagiri P R Adiga

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      The purified biotin binding protein of pregnant rat serum was shown to be immunologically similar to rat serum albumin as assessed by a sensitive radioimmunoassay. In radioimmunoassay for rat biotin binding protein, the binding of [125I] rat biotin binding protein to anti-chicken egg yolk biotin binding protein antibodies was displaced by both rat serum (10–100 nl) and purified rat serum albumin (0.1–10 ng). Similarly, in radioimmunoassay for rat serum albumin the binding of [125I] rat serum albumin to either anti-rat serum albumin antibodies or anti-chicken egg yolk biotin binding protein antibodies was displaced by unlabelled rat biotin binding protein at comparable concentration range (0·5–10 ng). Significant fractions of radioiodinated rat biotin binding protein and rat serum albumin bound to antibodies to chicken egg yolk biotin binding protein. In immature rats, the circulating half-lives of rat biotin binding protein and rat serum albumin were determined to be 12 and 17 h respectively. The rat biotin binding protein and rat serum albumin were analysed by techniques that exploit their physicochemical properties. They displayed similar electrophoretic mobilities in alkaline as well as denaturing sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gels. However, in nonequilibrium pH gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, they resolved clearly. In two-dimensional tryptic peptide map analysis, the two proteins showed similarities as well as significant differences in the relative distribution patterns of their iodopeptides. These results showed that the primary structure of rat biotin binding protein and rat serum albumin were different in finer details despite the fact that they shared significant immunological cross-reactivity.

    • Antigenic determinants on chicken riboflavin carrier protein. A study with monoclonal antibodies

      N Kuzhandhai Velu Anjali A Karande P R Adiga

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      Monoclonal antibodies raised against chicken egg white riboflavin carrier protein were classified into seven categories each recognizing a distinct epitope. Of these, six were directed against conformation dependent epitopes and one to a sequential epitope. The roles of lysine residues and the post-translationally attached phosphate and oligosaccharide moieties in the antigenicity of riboflavin carrier protein recognized by the monoclonal antibodies were investigated. The binding region of three monoclonal antibodies could be located within the 87–219 amino acid sequence of the protein and one antibody among these recognized a sequence of 182–204 amino acid residues. All the monoclonal antibodies were able to recognize riboflavin carrier proteins present in the sera of pregnant rats, cows and humans indicating that the epitopes to which they are directed are conserved through evolution from chicken to the human.

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