• Opender Koul

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Insect growth regulating and antifeedant effects of neem extracts and azadirachtin on two aphid species of ornamental plants

      Opender Koul

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      Leaf disc choice test bioassay demonstrated that formulated neem seed extracts were highly deterrent and growth regulatory to rose aphid,Microsiphum rosae (L.) and Chrysanthemum aphid,Macrosiphoniella sanbornii (Gillete). Effective concentrations to produce 50% feeding deterrence was 0.80 and 0.84% respectively for 2nd instar nymphs irrespective of bioassay duration. The disruption of aphid feeding was related to the presence of azadirachtin concentration in the extract. The toxicity on contact from the leaf surface or via topical application due to azadirachtin was significantly different and topical treatment was at least 7 times more effective for both species. Thus growth regulatory effects of azadirachtin were influenced by the host plant and the stage of treatment. Field evaluation with formulated neem extracts revealed the effect to be more of growth regulatory nature thereby showing that azadirachtin is a physiological toxin for aphid species. Neem seed extracts reduced the population of aphid on respective host plants significantly, EC50 values being 0.88 and 0.96% forM. rosae andM. sanbornii respectively.

    • Bioefficacy and mode-of-action of some limonoids of salannin group fromAzadirachta indica A. Juss and their role in a multicomponent system against lepidopteran larvae

      Opender Koul Gurmeet Singh Rajwinder Singh Jasbir Singh W M Daniewski Stanislaw Berlozecki

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      Biological activities of the salannin type of limonoids isolated fromAzadirachta indica A. Juss were assessed using the gram pod borerHelicoverpa armigera (Hubner) and the tobacco armywormSpodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Inhibition of larval growth was concomitant with reduced feeding by neonate and third instar larvae. All three compounds exhibited strong antifeedant activity in a choice leaf disc bioassay with 2.0, 2.3 and 2.8 (μ/cm2 of 3-O-acetyl salannol, salannol and salannin, respectively deterring feeding by 50% inS. litura larvae. In nutritional assays, all three comounds reduced growth and consumption when fed to larvae without any effect on efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), suggesting antifeedant activity alone. No toxicity was observed nor was there any significant affect on nutritional indices following topical application, further suggesting specific action as feeding deterrents. When relative growth rates were plotted against relative consumption rates, growth efficiency of theH. armigera fed diet containing 3-O-acetyl salannol, salannol or salannin did not differ from that of starved control larvae (used as calibration curve), further confirming the specific antifeedant action of salannin type of limonoids. Where the three compounds were co-administered, no enhancement in activity was observed. Non-azadirachtin limonoids having structural similarities and explicitly similar modes of action, like feeding deterrence in the present case, have no potentiating effect in any combination.

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