• Najma Z Baquer

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Changes in insulin receptor, hexokinase and NADPH producing enzymes in Choroid plexus during experimental diabetes

      Mansoor A Ansari Biharil Gupta Najma Z Baquer

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      The activities of insulin receptor and the enzymes hexokinase (EC 2.7.1.1) and NADP-dependent malic enzyme (EC1.1.1.40), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.42) were measured in rat choroid plexus in alloxan induced diabetes. A significant decrease was observed in the activities of all the enzymes except isocitrate dehydrogenase and also the choroid plexus insulin receptor activity was decreased. A reversal of the efect was observed with insulin administration to diabetic rats. It may be concluded that the enzymes of choroid plexus together with insulin receptor are directly controlled by-the concentration of insulin.

    • Regulation of glucose utilization and lipogenesis in adipose tissue of diabetic and fat fed animals: Effects of insulin and manganese

      Najma Z Baquer M Sinclair S Kunjara Umesh C S Yadav P McLean

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      In order to evaluate the modulatory effects of manganese, high fat diet fed and alloxan diabetic rats were taken and the changes in the glucose oxidation, glycerol release and effects of manganese on these parameters were measured from adipose tissue. An insulin-mimetic effect of manganese was observed in the adipose tissue in the controls and an additive effect of insulin and manganese on glucose oxidation was seen when Mn2+ was addedin vitro. The flux of glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis was significantly decreased in high fat fed animals. Although thein vitro addition of Mn2+ was additive with insulin when14CO2 was measured from control animals, it was found neither in young diabetic animals (6–8 weeks old) nor in the old (16 weeks old). Both insulin and manganese caused an increased oxidation of carbon-1 of glucose and an increase of its incorporation into14C-lipids in the young control animals; the additive effect of insulin and manganese suggests separate site of action. This effect was decreased in fat fed animals, diabetic animals and old animals. Manganese alone was found to decrease glycerol in both the control and diabetic adipose tissue inin vitro incubations. The results of the effects of glucose oxidation, lipogenesis, and glycerol release in adipose tissue of control and diabetic animals of different ages are presented together with the effect of manganese on adipose tissue from high fat milk diet fed animals.

    • Protective effects of sodium orthovanadate in diabetic reticulocytes and ageing red blood cells of Wistar rats

      Bihari L Gupta Anju Preet Najma Z Baquer

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      The reticulocytes and the ageing red blood cells (RBCs) namely young (Y), middle-aged (M) and old RBCs (O) of female Wistar rats from different groups such as control animals (C), controls treated with vanadate (C + V), alloxan-induced diabetic (D), diabetic-treated with insulin (D + I) and vanadate (D + V), were fractionated on a percoll/BSA gradient. The following enzymes were measured-hexokinase (HK), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSSG-R), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), alanine aminotransferase ΜlaAT), aspartate aminotransferase ΜsAT) and arginase in the hemolysates of all the RBCs fractions. Decreases in the activity of HK and AsAT by about 70%, arginase and GSH-Px by 30% in old RBCs were observed in comparison to reticulocytes of control animals. Increases in the activity of GSSG-R by 86%, AlaAT by more than 400% and GST by 70% were observed in old RBCs in comparison to reticulocytes of control animals.

      Alloxan diabetic animals showed a further decrease in the activities of HK in Y RBCs by 37%, M RBCs by 39% and O RBCs by 32%, GSH-Px activity in Y RBCs by 13%, M RBCs by 20% and O RBCs by 33% and GST activity in Y RBCs by 14%, M RBCs by 42% and O RBCs by 60% in comparison to their corresponding cells of control animals. An increase in the activity of all the enzymes studied was also observed in reticulocytes of diabetic animals in comparison to reticulocytes of controls. The GSSG-R activity was found to be increased in Y RBCs by 49%, M RBCs by 67% and O RBCs by 64% as compared to the corresponding age-matched cells of control animals. The activity of arginase also decreased in Y RBCs by about10%, M RBCs by 20% and O RBCs by 30% in comparison to the age-matched cells of control animals. A decrease in the activity of AsAT in Y and M RBCs by 30%, and O RBCs by 25% was observed in diabetic animals in comparison to the agematched cells of control animals. The activity of AlaAT was found to be decreased by more than 10% in Y and M RBCs and 25% in O RBCs of diabetic animals in comparison to the age-matched cells of control animals.

      Insulin administration to diabetic animals reversed the altered enzyme activity to control values. Vanadate treatment also reversed the enzyme levels except for that of GST in old cells

    • Effects of sodium-orthovanadate andTrigonella foenum-graecum seeds on hepatic and renal lipogenic enzymes and lipid profile during alloxan diabetes

      Umesh C S Yadav K Moorthy Najma Z Baquer

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      Sodium-orthovanadate (SOV) and seed powder ofTrigonella foenum graecum Linn. (common name: fenugreek, family: Fabaceae) (TSP) besides being potential hypoglycemic agents have also been shown to ameliorate altered lipid metabolism during diabetes. This study evaluates the short-term effect of oral administration of SOV and TSP separately and in concert (for 21 days) on total lipid profile and lipogenic enzymes in tissues of alloxan diabetic rats. Diabetic rats showed 4-fold increase in blood glucose. The level of total lipids, triglycerides and total cholesterol in blood serum increased significantly during diabetes. During diabetes the level of total lipids increased significantly (P < 0001) in liver and in kidney by 48% and 55%, respectively, compared to control. Triglycerides level increased by 32% (P < 001) in liver and by 51% (P < 0005) in kidney, respectively, compared to control. Total cholesterol level also increased significantly in both liver and kidney (P < 0.01 andP < 0001, respectively). The activities of NADP-linked enzymes; namely glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), malic enzyme (ME), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and the activities of lipogenic enzymes namely ATP-citrate lyase ΜTP-CL) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were decreased significantly in liver and increased in kidney during diabetes as compared to control. SOV and TSP administration to diabetic animals prevented the development of hyperglycemia and alteration in lipid profile in plasma and tissues and maintained it near normal. Maximum prevention was observed in the combined treatment with lower dose of SOV (0.2%) after 21 days. We are presenting for the first time effectiveness of combined treatment of SOV and TSP in amelioration of altered lipid metabolism during experimental type-I diabetes

    • Efficacy of lower doses of vanadium in restoring altered glucose metabolism and antioxidant status in diabetic rat lenses

      Anju Preet Bihari L Gupta Pramod K Yadava Najma Z Baquer

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      Vanadium compounds are potent in controlling elevated blood glucose levels in experimentally induced diabetes. However the toxicity associated with vanadium limits its role as therapeutic agent for diabetic treatment. A vanadium compound sodium orthovanadate (SOV) was given to alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats in lower doses in combination withTrigonella foenum graecum, a well-known hypoglycemic agent used in traditional Indian medicines. The effect of this combination was studied on lens morphology and glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. Lens, an insulin-independent tissue, was found severely affected in diabetes showing visual signs of cataract. Alterations in the activities of glucose metabolizing enzymes (hexokinase, aldose reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase) besides the levels of related metabolites, [sorbitol, fructose, glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH)]were observed in the lenses from diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated with insulin (2 IU/day), SOV (0.6 mg/ml),T. f. graecum seed powder (TSP, 5%) and TSP (5%) in combination with lowered dose of vanadium SOV (0.2 mg/ml), for a period of 3 weeks. The activity of the enzymes, hexokinase, aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase was significantly increased whereas the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase decreased significantly in lenses from 3 week diabetic rats. Significant increase in accumulation of metabolites, sorbitol, fructose, glucose was found in diabetic lenses. TBARS measure of peroxidation increased whereas the levels of antioxidant GSH decreased significantly in diabetic condition. Insulin restored the levels of altered enzyme activities and metabolites almost to control levels. Sodium orthovanadate (0.6 mg/ml) andTrigonella administered separately to diabetic animals could partially reverse the diabetic changes, metabolic and morphological, while vanadate in lowered dose in combination withTrigonella was found to be the most effective in restoring the altered lens metabolism and morphological appearance in diabetes. It may be concluded that vanadate at lowered doses administered in combination withTrigonella was the most effective in controlling the altered glucose metabolism and antioxidant status in diabetic lenses, these being significant factors involved in the development of diabetic complications, that reflects in the reduced lens opacity

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