Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Can embryonic skipper frogs (Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis) learn to recognise kairomones in the absence of a nervous system?


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      In this study, we used larval Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis to determine the predator recognition mechanism. We conducted aseries of experiments to determine if larval E. cyanophlyctis have the innate ability to recognise predatory odour (kairomones)as a threat or if they learn to do so during ontogeny. In the case of learning, we wanted to determine thedevelopmental window during which learning is accomplished. Further, we tested the antipredator response of predatornaı

      ¨ve as well as predator-experienced tadpoles to chemical cues of different origins in order to assess if they exhibitdifferential responses. Our results clearly indicate that predator-naı¨ve tadpoles of E. cyanophlyctis do not reduce theiractivity against predatory cues of dragonfly nymphs, suggesting that they lack the innate ability to recognise kairomones.However, they could learn to do so when trained to perceive kairomones simultaneously along with alarm cues. Surprisingly,larval E. cyanophlyctis could learn to recognise kairomones through association during embryonic stages evenbefore the development of a nervous system. Although larval E. cyanophlyctis lack the innate ability to recognise kairomones,they were able to recognise conspecific alarm cues on the first encounter, indicating that they have the innateability to recognise alarm cues as a potential threat.

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