• N R Moudgal

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Invitro responsiveness of hamster corpora lutea undergoing luteolysis to luteinizing hormone

      Venkat Ramaiah Mukku N R Moudgal

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      Corpora lutea removed from pregnant hamster deprived of endogenous luteinizing hormone for varying periods were compared for their responsiveness to externally added luteinizing hormone. The corpora lutea removed on the 8th day of pregnancy exhibited a dose-dependent increase in progesterone production in response to added luteinizing hormone upto a concentration of 2.5 Μg/ml. The total progesterone synthesised by the corpora lutea decreased with increase in the duration ofin vivo luteinizing hormone deprivation. However, the hormone deprivation had to be for a minimum period of 24 h before a marked reduction in thein vitro responsiveness could be seen. Neutralisation of endogenous luteinizing hormone increased the luteal cholesterol ester concentration, whilein vitro incubation of such tissue with luteinizing hormone resulted in a marked reduction in cholesterol ester levels. Corpora lutea removed from hamsters on day 8, 15 and 16 of pregnancy when compared for their responsivenessin vitro to added luteinizing hormone showed that the luteal tissue of day 8 produced more progesterone relative to those of day 15/16. In contrast, depletion of free and esterified cholesterol increased with the increase in age of corpora lutea (from 15% on day 8 to 67% on day 16).

    • Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on serum levels of progesterone and estrogens in the pregnant bonnet monkev (Macaca radiata)

      A Jagannadha Rao S G Kotagi N R Moudgal

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      Administration of human chorionic gonadotropin to pregnant bonnet monkeys(Macaca radiata) at 55–60 days and 130–140 days of pregnancy resulted in a significant increase in serum progesterone levels. This effect could be observed even in lutectomized monkeys. However, no significant change in the serum estrogen level was noticed. These results suggest that although no chorionic gonadotropin is detectable in the serum after 35 days of pregnancy, the foetoplacental steroidogenic system is still responsive to exogenous gonadotropic stimulation.

    • Biological characteristics of a factor suppressing follicle stimulating hormone (inhibin) from ovine testes

      H M Shashidhara Murthy N R Moudgal

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      Inhibin (follicle stimulating hormone suppressing factor) isolated from ovine testes has been characterized for its biological activity using a variety of tests. The bioassay used — inhibition of the human chorionic gonadotropin induced increment in the mouse uterine weight-demonstrates that there is a significant increment in specific activity (approx. 300-fold) with the progress of purification. Eventhough the final product has not been obtained in a homogenous state it has been possible to show that(a) [125I]-labelled inhibin is preferentially taken up and retained by the pituitary, pretreatment of rats with testosterone facilitating this uptake;(b) it is able to suppress specifically the levels of follicle stimulating hormone in castrated as well as immature intact rats and (c) treatment of immature male rats with inhibin preparation for ten days results in impairment of testicular function as judged by3H-thymidine incorporation into testicular DNA and testicular hyaluronidase activity.

    • Effect of diethylstilbesterol and prolactin on the induction of follicle stimulating hormone receptors in immature and cycling rats

      N Vidyashankar N R Moudgal

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      Induction of follicle stimulating hormone receptor in the granulosa cells of intact immature rat ovary by diethylstilbesterol, an estrogen, has been studied.

      A single injection of 4 mg of diethylstilbesterol produced 72 h later a 3-fold increase in follicle stimulating hormone receptor concentration as monitored by [125I]-oFSH binding to isolated cells. The newly induced receptors were kinetically indistinguishable from the preexisting ones, as determined by Lineweaver-Burk plot of the binding data. The induced receptors were functional as evidenced by increased ability of the granulosa cells to incorporate [3H]-leucine into cellular proteins.

      Neutralization of endogenous follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone by administering specific antisera had no effect on the ability of diethylstilbesterol to induce follicle stimulating hormone receptors, whereas blockade of endogenous prolactin secretion by ergobromocryptin administration significantly inhibited (∼ 30 %) the response to diethylstilbesterol; this inhibition could be completely relieved by ovine prolactin treatment. However, ovine prolactin at the dose tried did not by itself enhance follicle stimulating hormone receptor level.

      Administration of ergobromocryptin to adult cycling rats at noon of proestrus brought about as measured on diestrusII, (a) a reduction of both follicle stimulating hormone (∼ 30 %) and luteinizing hormone (∼ 45 %) receptor concentration in granulosa cells, (b) a drastic reduction in the ovarian tissue estradiol with no change in tissue progesterone and (c) reduction in the ability of isolated granulosa cells to convert testosterone to estradiol in response to follicle stimulating hormone. Ergobromocryptin treatment affected only prolactin and not follicle stimulating hormone or luteinizing hormone surges on the proestrus evening. Treatment of rats with ergobromocryptin at proestrus noon followed by an injection of ovine prolactin (1 mg) at 1700 h of the same day completely reversed the ergobromocryptin induced reduction in ovarian tissue estradiol as well as the aromatase activity of the granulosa cells on diestrus II, thus suggesting a role for proestrus prolactin surge in the follicular maturation process

    • Luteal function during the periimplantation period and requirement for estrogen for implantation and pregnancy maintenance in the non-human primate

      N R Moudgal

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      An attempt has been made in this paper to review our present understanding of luteal function during the periimplantation period and in particular hormonal requirement for implantation and maintenance of early pregnancy in the non-human primate.

      In a fertile cycle thecorpus luteum is apparently rescued from luteolysis by chorionic gonadotropin secreted by the implanted blastocyst, In the bonnet monkey the serum progesterone titers during the luteal phase of a fertile cycle seems higher compared to that of nonmated cycling monkeys. This suggested that thecorpus luteum is receiving some stimulatory signal from the blastocyst even prior to implantation. The recent demonstration that human blastocyst in culture secretes into the medium human chorionic gonadotropin essentially support the above assumption. However, attempts to extend the luteal phase of cycling unmated monkeys with exogenous human chorionic gonadotropin injection has hitherto not met with complete success suggesting that there could be other than chorionic gonadotropin, additional luteal stimulatory factors the unimplanted blastocyst is secreting.

      Corpus luteum is the principle source of both progesterone and estrogen produced during the periimplantation period and dysruption of luteal function, brought about by either lutectomy or ovariectomy or luteinizing hormone antiserum treatment, followed by progesterone supplementation leads to maintenance of pregnancy. This has lead to questioning the need for estrogen in the maintenance of early pregnancy. Recent work using Zuclomiphene, an antiestrogen during days 5–11 of cycle in rhesus monkeys mated between day 9–14, has however, suggested that estrogen may be required for implantation. Further work is needed to arrive at an unequivocal decision regarding the need for estrogen in maintenance of early pregnancy in the primate.

    • Studies on regulation of chorionic gonadotropin secretion in primates

      A Jagannadha Rao N Mathialagan S G Kotagi N R Moudgal

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      The regulation of secretion of chorionic gonadotropin in primates has been studied using bothin vivo andin vitro models.In vivo studies using the pregnant bonnet monkey revealed that at the doses tested, the administration of progesterone or estradiol 17Β in combination or alone did not result in any appreciable change in the duration or magnitude of serum chorionic gonadotropin levels. However, administration of lutropin-releasing hormone by intravenous route resulted in significant increase in chorionic gonadotropin levels within 30–60 min and the extent of stimulation seemed to depend on the state of pregnancy. Forin vitro studies, explants or cells prepared from first trimester human placenta has been used. The functional integrity of these cells has been established by demonstrating the binding of [125I]-labelled human chorionic gonadotropin antibody to the cells as well as the synthesis of [3H]-labelled human chorionic gonadotropin.In vitro studies using the cells revealed that addition of lutropin-releasing hormone caused a significant increase in chorionic gonadotropin and estradiol 17Β secreted into the medium. Thus bothin vivo andin vitro results suggest that lutropin-releasing hormone could be one of the factors involved in regulation of chorionic gonadotropin secretion in primates.

    • Studies on ovarian quiescence in the lactating bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata)

      N R Moudgal R Maneckjee B R Srinath K Ramasharma

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      Lactating bonnet monkeys were used as a model to understand the mechanism of ovarian quiescence during lactation. The ovary of the bonnet monkey in the 3rd month of lactation responds well to exogenous pregnant mare serum gonadotropin stimulation with serum estrogen values reaching maximal levels by day 3 of the gonadotropin injection. The adminstration of ovine prolactin to such monkeys significantly inhibited the ovarian responsiveness to exogenous gonadotropin. The responsiveness of the pituitary of the lactating monkey (in the 3rd month of lactation) to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone injection was suppressed and supplementation with exogenous prolactin further accentuating this effect. The relative ability of chlorpromazine given intravenously/intramuscularly/intranasally to enhance endogenous prolactin levels was assessed. During the first 5 months of lactation when the basal prolactin levels were high, the luteinizing hormone levels were low. As the suckling stimulus reduces and prolactin levels fall, luteinizing hormone levels increase, the first post-parturient mensus occurring by 218 ± 4 days. This event was postponed by 3 months on increasing endogenous prolactin levels by administering chlorpromazine (250 μg/day by intranasal mode) over a 5 day period every month starting from the 3rd month of lactation.

    • Antifertility effect of tamoxifen as tested in the female bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata)

      N Ravindranath N R Moudgal

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      The administration of a potent antiestrogen, tamoxifen at a dose of 3 mg/kg body weight/day orally post-coitally to cycling mated bonnet monkeys(Macaca radiata) from days 18–30 of cycle resulted in inhibition of establishment of pregnancy in 9 out of 10 monkeys. Tamoxifen effect was not due to interference with luteal function. The effect was specific to tamoxifen as exogenously administered progesterone could not reverse it. In addition to suggesting a role for estrogen in maintenance of early pregnancy in the primate the present study could be a prelude to the development of an effective post-ovulatory approach for regulation of fertility in the human female

    • Use of epoxysepharose for protein immobilisation

      G S Murthy N R Moudgal

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      Epoxy Sepharose, an activated affinity matrix which has been used for immobilisation of carbohydrates has been tried for immobilisation of proteins. Under normal conditions of coupling at neutral or alkaline pH proteins do not couple to epoxy Sepharose. However, a very high salt concentration during coupling allows the binding of proteins to epoxy Sepharose at a pH as low as 8.5. Increasing ionic strength and/or pH facilitates the binding. The bioactivity of the proteins is not destroyed by the immobilisation. This matrix, unlike cyanogen bromide-Sepharose, retains its ability to bind albumin by 80–90% even after 60 days of storage in aqueous suspension at 4°C. Its capacity to bind proteins is comparable to that of cyanogen bromide-Sepharose.

    • Immunological crossreactivity of the antisera to purified hormones

      G S Murthy N R Moudgal

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      Antisera to ovine follicle stimulating hormone free of ovine lutinising hormone contamination has been obtained in monkeys. These antisera have been shown to be able to crossreact with ovine lutinising hormone. Quantitation of the binding data for ovine follicle stimulating hormone and ovine lutinising hormone show that 10–40% of the total antibody population to ovine follicle stimulating hormone can bind to ovine lutinising hormone and the affinity constant for ovine lutinising hormone is about 2–20 times lesser than for ovine follicle stimulating hormone. These binding data indicate that there are common epitopes exposed in ovine follicle stimulating hormone and ovine lutinising hormone through the α-subunit. Results are obtained which match with the above conclusions when ovine lutinising hormone antisera is analysed for ovine follicle stimulating hormone binding. These results show that the α-subunit when combined with different β-subunits will have common epitopes exposed, but would be sterically disposed differently in the two hormones.

    • Mechanism of down regulation of luteinizing hormone receptors and steroidogenesis in corpora lutea

      Rajan R Dighe N R Moudgal

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      The mechanism of ‘down regulation’ of luteinizing hormone receptors was investigated in pseudopregnant rats using a modified radioimmunoassay capable of measuring endogenous tissue-bound hormone. Treatment of pseudopregnant animals with a desensitizing dose (desensitization treatment) of human chorionic gonadotropin resulted in a decrease in receptor concentration. This decrease was prevented if the animals were treated prior to the desensitization treatment with indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis, suggesting a role for prostaglandins in down regulation. The desensitization treatment resulted in a time-dependent decrease in subsequent responsiveness of the tissue to luteinizing hormone. Basal progesterone production rate was also decreased following desensitization. Total tissue cholesterol was found to be decreased following desensitization treatment, without any change in the ratio of free to esterified cholesterol. Mitochondrial cholesterol was significantly reduced and pregnenolone production by the mitochondria of desensitized corpora lutea was also markedly reduced. However, when cholesterol was added to the mitochondria of desensitized corpora lutea, pregnenolone production was increased, reaching values almost equal to that shown by the control mitochondria. These results show that decrease in the responsiveness following desensitization treatment is due to, besides receptor loss, decrease in tissue cholesterol, in particular mitochondrial cholesterol. The cholesterol side chain cleavage activity, although low, appears to be functionally intact; the low activity could be attributed to low levels of mitochondrial cholesterol.

    • Radioimmunoassay of polypeptide hormones using immunochemically coated plastic tubes

      G S Murthy B S Lakshmi N R Moudgal

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      A method has been developed for immobilisation of antisera on fresh plastic tubes through an immunochemical bridge. This type of immobilisation has been shown to be more consistent than direct adsorption on plastic. Such immunochemically coated antisera on plastic tube has been used in the development of a noncentrifugation radioimmunoassay. This assay system has been found to be technically as sound as the conventional method.

    • Relative ability of ovine follicle stimulating hormone and itsβ-subunit to generate antibodies having bioneutralization potential in nonhuman primates

      N R Moudgal M R Sairam R R Dighe

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      The relative ability of ovine follicle stimulating hormone and itsβ-subunit, two potential candidates for male contraceptive vaccine, to generate antibodies in monkeys capable of bioneutralizing follicle stimulating hormone was assessed usingin vitro model systems. Antiserum against native ovine follicle stimulating hormone was found to be highly specific to the intact form with no cross-reactivity with either of the two subunits while the antiserum againstβ-subunit of follicle stimulating hormone could bind to theβ-subunit in its free form as well as when it is combined withα-subunit to form the intact hormone. Both antisera could block the binding of the hormone to the receptor if the hormone was preincubated with the antibody. However, the follicle stimulating hormoneβ-antisera could only inhibit the binding of the hormone partially (33% inhibition) if the antibody and receptor were mixed prior to the addition of the hormone, while antisera to the native follicle stimulating hormone could block the binding completely (100% inhibition) in the same experiment. Similarly antisera to the native follicle stimulating hormone was significantly effective in blocking (100%) response to follicle stimulating hormone but not theβ-subunit antisera (0%) as checked using anin vitro granulosa cell system. Thus the probability of obtaining antibodies of greater bioneutralization potential is much higher if intact hormone is used as an antigen rather than itsβ-subunit as a vaccine.

    • Quantitation of spermatogenesis by DNA flow cytometry: Comparative study among six species of mammals

      R Suresh G R Aravindan N R Moudgal

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      Suspensions of testicular germ cells from six species of mammals were prepared and stained for the DNA content with a fluorochrome (ethidium bromide) adopting a common technique and subjected to DNA flow cytometry. While uniform staining of the germ cells of the mouse, hamster, rat and monkey could be obtained by treating with 0.5% pepsin for 60 min followed by staining with ethidium bromide for 30 min, that of the guinea pig and rabbit required for optimal staining pepsinization for 90 min and treatment with ethidium bromide for 60 min. The procedure adopted here provided a uniform recovery of over 80% of germ cells with each one of the species tested and the cell population distributed itself according to the DNA content (expressed as C values) into 5 major classes-spermatogonia (2C), cells in S-phase, primary spermatocytes (4C), round spermatids (1C), and elongating/elongated spermatids (HC). Comparison of the DNA distribution pattern of the germ cell populations between species revealed little variation in the relative quantities of cells with 2C (8–11%), S-phase (6–9%), and 4C (6–9%) amount of DNA. Though the spermatid cell populations exhibited variations (1C:31–46%, HCl:7–20% and and HC2:11–25%) they represented the bulk of germ cells (70–80%). The overall conversion of 2C to 1C (1C:2C ratio) and meiotic transformation of 4C cells to 1C (1C:4C ratio) kinetics were relatively constant between the species studied. The present study clearly demonstrates that DNA flow cytometry can be adopted with ease and assurance to quantify germ cell transformation and as such spermatogenesis by analysing a large number of samples with consistency both within and across the species barrier. Any variation from the norms in germ cell proportions observed following treatment, fore.g. hormonal stimulation or deprivation can then be ascribed due to a specific effect of the hormone/drug on single/multiple steps in germ cell transformation

    • Correlation of seasonal changes in sperm output with endocrinological changes in the adult male bonnet monkey,Macaca radiata

      R Medhamurthy R Suresh Sunil S Paul N R Moudgal

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      We have examined the monthly variations in sperm output and attempted to correlate the profiles of endocrine hormones secreted with the sperm counts throughout the year in the adult male bonnet monkey. As previously reported, there was a distinct spurt in sperm output beginning September through December months. A concomitant increase in serum testosterone and prolactin concentrations were also noted during September through November (mid and post-monsoon season). Although there was a marked increase in gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulated testosterone secretion, the peak testosterone concentrations post gonadotropin releasing hormone injection did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) throughout the year. Basal serum follicle stimulating hormone concentrations did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) during April to June months compared to September-November months. Serum inhibin concentration remained unaltered throughout the year, except in the month of March. The results of this study provide evidence for annual rhythms in prolactin and testosterone secretion and a distinct seasonality in the sperm output of the adult male bonnet monkey, but the pituitary responsiveness to exogenous gonadotropin releasing hormone remains unaltered throughout the year. Because of the existence of seasonality as noted in the present study, future studies which utilize the adult male bonnet monkey as an experimental model need to take into consideration the seasonal effects on reproductive function in this species.

    • Assessment of luteal rescue and desensitization of macaque corpus luteum brought about by human chorionic gonadotrophin and deglycosylated human chorionic gonadotrophin treatment

      N Selvaraj R Medhamurthy S G Ramachandra M R Sairam N R Moudgal

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      The objective of the current study was to investigate the mechanism by which the corpus luteum (CL) of the monkey undergoes desensitization to luteinizing hormone following exposure to increasing concentration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) as it occurs in pregnancy. Female bonnet monkeys were injected (im) increasing doses of hCG or dghCG beginning from day 6 or 12 of the luteal phase for either 10 or 4 or 2 days. The day of oestrogen surge was considered as day ‘0’ of luteal phase. Luteal cells obtained from CL of these animals were incubated with hCG (2 and 200 pg/ml) or dbcAMP (2.5,25 and 100 M) for 3h at 37°C and progesterone secreted was estimated. Corpora lutea of normal cycling monkeys on day 10/16/22 of the luteal phase were used as controls. In addition thein vivo response to CG and deglycosylated hCG (dghCG) was assessed by determining serum steroid profiles following their administration. hCG (from 15–90 IU) but not dghCG (15-90 IU) treatment in vivo significantly (P < 0.05) elevated serum progesterone and oestradiol levels. Serum progesterone, however, could not be maintained at a elevated level by continuous treatment with hCG (from day 6–15), the progesterone level declining beyond day 13 of luteal phase. Administering low doses of hCG (15-90 IU/day) from day 6–9 or high doses (600 IU/day) on days 8 and 9 of the luteal phase resulted in significant increase (about 10-fold over corresponding control P < 0.005) in the ability of luteal cells to synthesize progesterone (incubated controls) in vitro. The luteal cells of the treated animals responded to dbcAMP (P < 0.05) but not to hCC added in vitro. The in vitro response of luteal cells to added hCG was inhibited by 0,50 and 100% if the animals were injected with low (15-90 IU) or medium (100 IU) between day 6–9 of luteal phase and high (600 IU on day 8 and 9 of luteal phase) doses of dghCG respectively; such treatment had no effect on responsivity of the cells to dbcAMP. The luteal cell responsiveness to dbcAMP in vitro was also blocked if hCG was administered for 10 days beginning day 6 of the luteal phase. Though short term hCG treatment during late luteal phase (from days 12—15) had no effect on luteal function, 10 day treatment beginning day 12 of luteal phase resulted in regain ofin vitro responsiveness to both hCG (P < 0.05) and dbcAMP (P < 0.05) suggesting that luteal rescue can occur even at this late stage. In conclusion, desensitization of the CL to hCG appears to be governed by the dose/period for which it is exposed to hCG/dghCG. That desensitization is due to receptor occupancy is brought out by the fact that (i) this can be achieved by giving a larger dose of hCG over a 2 day period instead of a lower dose of the hormone for a longer (4 to 10 days) period and (ii) the effect can largely be reproduced by using dghCG instead of hCG to block the receptor sites. It appears that to achieve desensitization to dbcAMP also it is necessary to expose the luteal cell to relatively high dose of hCG for more than 4 days

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