N R Moudgal
Articles written in Journal of Biosciences
Volume 1 Issue 4 December 1979 pp 457-465
Corpora lutea removed from pregnant hamster deprived of endogenous luteinizing hormone for varying periods were compared for their responsiveness to externally added luteinizing hormone. The corpora lutea removed on the 8th day of pregnancy exhibited a dose-dependent increase in progesterone production in response to added luteinizing hormone upto a concentration of 2.5 Μg/ml. The total progesterone synthesised by the corpora lutea decreased with increase in the duration of
Volume 3 Issue 1 March 1981 pp 83-88
Administration of human chorionic gonadotropin to pregnant bonnet monkeys
Volume 5 Issue 2 June 1983 pp 115-123
Inhibin (follicle stimulating hormone suppressing factor) isolated from ovine testes has been characterized for its biological activity using a variety of tests. The bioassay used — inhibition of the human chorionic gonadotropin induced increment in the mouse uterine weight-demonstrates that there is a significant increment in specific activity (approx. 300-fold) with the progress of purification. Eventhough the final product has not been obtained in a homogenous state it has been possible to show that
Volume 6 Issue 3 September 1984 pp 263-276
Induction of follicle stimulating hormone receptor in the granulosa cells of intact immature rat ovary by diethylstilbesterol, an estrogen, has been studied.
A single injection of 4 mg of diethylstilbesterol produced 72 h later a 3-fold increase in follicle stimulating hormone receptor concentration as monitored by [125I]-oFSH binding to isolated cells. The newly induced receptors were kinetically indistinguishable from the preexisting ones, as determined by Lineweaver-Burk plot of the binding data. The induced receptors were functional as evidenced by increased ability of the granulosa cells to incorporate [3H]-leucine into cellular proteins.
Neutralization of endogenous follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone by administering specific antisera had no effect on the ability of diethylstilbesterol to induce follicle stimulating hormone receptors, whereas blockade of endogenous prolactin secretion by ergobromocryptin administration significantly inhibited (∼ 30 %) the response to diethylstilbesterol; this inhibition could be completely relieved by ovine prolactin treatment. However, ovine prolactin at the dose tried did not by itself enhance follicle stimulating hormone receptor level.
Administration of ergobromocryptin to adult cycling rats at noon of proestrus brought about as measured on diestrus
Volume 6 Issue S2 July 1984 pp 93-96
An attempt has been made in this paper to review our present understanding of luteal function during the periimplantation period and in particular hormonal requirement for implantation and maintenance of early pregnancy in the non-human primate.
In a fertile cycle the
Volume 6 Issue S2 July 1984 pp 97-106
The regulation of secretion of chorionic gonadotropin in primates has been studied using both
Volume 7 Issue 2 March 1985 pp 95-103
Lactating bonnet monkeys were used as a model to understand the mechanism of ovarian quiescence during lactation. The ovary of the bonnet monkey in the 3rd month of lactation responds well to exogenous pregnant mare serum gonadotropin stimulation with serum estrogen values reaching maximal levels by day 3 of the gonadotropin injection. The adminstration of ovine prolactin to such monkeys significantly inhibited the ovarian responsiveness to exogenous gonadotropin. The responsiveness of the pituitary of the lactating monkey (in the 3rd month of lactation) to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone injection was suppressed and supplementation with exogenous prolactin further accentuating this effect. The relative ability of chlorpromazine given intravenously/intramuscularly/intranasally to enhance endogenous prolactin levels was assessed. During the first 5 months of lactation when the basal prolactin levels were high, the luteinizing hormone levels were low. As the suckling stimulus reduces and prolactin levels fall, luteinizing hormone levels increase, the first post-parturient mensus occurring by 218 ± 4 days. This event was postponed by 3 months on increasing endogenous prolactin levels by administering chlorpromazine (250 μg/day by intranasal mode) over a 5 day period every month starting from the 3rd month of lactation.
Volume 10 Issue 1 March 1986 pp 167-170 Short Communication
The administration of a potent antiestrogen, tamoxifen at a dose of 3 mg/kg body weight/day orally post-coitally to cycling mated bonnet monkeys
Volume 10 Issue 3 September 1986 pp 351-358
Epoxy Sepharose, an activated affinity matrix which has been used for immobilisation of carbohydrates has been tried for immobilisation of proteins. Under normal conditions of coupling at neutral or alkaline pH proteins do not couple to epoxy Sepharose. However, a very high salt concentration during coupling allows the binding of proteins to epoxy Sepharose at a pH as low as 8.5. Increasing ionic strength and/or pH facilitates the binding. The bioactivity of the proteins is not destroyed by the immobilisation. This matrix, unlike cyanogen bromide-Sepharose, retains its ability to bind albumin by 80–90% even after 60 days of storage in aqueous suspension at 4°C. Its capacity to bind proteins is comparable to that of cyanogen bromide-Sepharose.
Volume 12 Issue 1 March 1987 pp 23-31
Antisera to ovine follicle stimulating hormone free of ovine lutinising hormone contamination has been obtained in monkeys. These antisera have been shown to be able to crossreact with ovine lutinising hormone. Quantitation of the binding data for ovine follicle stimulating hormone and ovine lutinising hormone show that 10–40% of the total antibody population to ovine follicle stimulating hormone can bind to ovine lutinising hormone and the affinity constant for ovine lutinising hormone is about 2–20 times lesser than for ovine follicle stimulating hormone. These binding data indicate that there are common epitopes exposed in ovine follicle stimulating hormone and ovine lutinising hormone through the α-subunit. Results are obtained which match with the above conclusions when ovine lutinising hormone antisera is analysed for ovine follicle stimulating hormone binding. These results show that the α-subunit when combined with different β-subunits will have common epitopes exposed, but would be sterically disposed differently in the two hormones.
Volume 13 Issue 3 September 1988 pp 285-293
The mechanism of ‘down regulation’ of luteinizing hormone receptors was investigated in pseudopregnant rats using a modified radioimmunoassay capable of measuring endogenous tissue-bound hormone. Treatment of pseudopregnant animals with a desensitizing dose (desensitization treatment) of human chorionic gonadotropin resulted in a decrease in receptor concentration. This decrease was prevented if the animals were treated prior to the desensitization treatment with indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis, suggesting a role for prostaglandins in down regulation. The desensitization treatment resulted in a time-dependent decrease in subsequent responsiveness of the tissue to luteinizing hormone. Basal progesterone production rate was also decreased following desensitization. Total tissue cholesterol was found to be decreased following desensitization treatment, without any change in the ratio of free to esterified cholesterol. Mitochondrial cholesterol was significantly reduced and pregnenolone production by the mitochondria of desensitized corpora lutea was also markedly reduced. However, when cholesterol was added to the mitochondria of desensitized corpora lutea, pregnenolone production was increased, reaching values almost equal to that shown by the control mitochondria. These results show that decrease in the responsiveness following desensitization treatment is due to, besides receptor loss, decrease in tissue cholesterol, in particular mitochondrial cholesterol. The cholesterol side chain cleavage activity, although low, appears to be functionally intact; the low activity could be attributed to low levels of mitochondrial cholesterol.
Volume 14 Issue 1 March 1989 pp 9-20
A method has been developed for immobilisation of antisera on fresh plastic tubes through an immunochemical bridge. This type of immobilisation has been shown to be more consistent than direct adsorption on plastic. Such immunochemically coated antisera on plastic tube has been used in the development of a noncentrifugation radioimmunoassay. This assay system has been found to be technically as sound as the conventional method.
Volume 14 Issue 2 June 1989 pp 91-100
The relative ability of ovine follicle stimulating hormone and its
Volume 17 Issue 4 December 1992 pp 413-419
Suspensions of testicular germ cells from six species of mammals were prepared and stained for the DNA content with a fluorochrome (ethidium bromide) adopting a common technique and subjected to DNA flow cytometry. While uniform staining of the germ cells of the mouse, hamster, rat and monkey could be obtained by treating with 0.5% pepsin for 60 min followed by staining with ethidium bromide for 30 min, that of the guinea pig and rabbit required for optimal staining pepsinization for 90 min and treatment with ethidium bromide for 60 min. The procedure adopted here provided a uniform recovery of over 80% of germ cells with each one of the species tested and the cell population distributed itself according to the DNA content (expressed as C values) into 5 major classes-spermatogonia (2C), cells in S-phase, primary spermatocytes (4C), round spermatids (1C), and elongating/elongated spermatids (HC). Comparison of the DNA distribution pattern of the germ cell populations between species revealed little variation in the relative quantities of cells with 2C (8–11%), S-phase (6–9%), and 4C (6–9%) amount of DNA. Though the spermatid cell populations exhibited variations (1C:31–46%, HCl:7–20% and and HC2:11–25%) they represented the bulk of germ cells (70–80%). The overall conversion of 2C to 1C (1C:2C ratio) and meiotic transformation of 4C cells to 1C (1C:4C ratio) kinetics were relatively constant between the species studied. The present study clearly demonstrates that DNA flow cytometry can be adopted with ease and assurance to quantify germ cell transformation and as such spermatogenesis by analysing a large number of samples with consistency both within and across the species barrier. Any variation from the norms in germ cell proportions observed following treatment, for
Volume 19 Issue 1 March 1994 pp 67-74
We have examined the monthly variations in sperm output and attempted to correlate the profiles of endocrine hormones secreted with the sperm counts throughout the year in the adult male bonnet monkey. As previously reported, there was a distinct spurt in sperm output beginning September through December months. A concomitant increase in serum testosterone and prolactin concentrations were also noted during September through November (mid and post-monsoon season). Although there was a marked increase in gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulated testosterone secretion, the peak testosterone concentrations post gonadotropin releasing hormone injection did not vary significantly (
Volume 21 Issue 4 June 1996 pp 497-510
The objective of the current study was to investigate the mechanism by which the corpus luteum (CL) of the monkey undergoes desensitization to luteinizing hormone following exposure to increasing concentration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) as it occurs in pregnancy. Female bonnet monkeys were injected (im) increasing doses of hCG or dghCG beginning from day 6 or 12 of the luteal phase for either 10 or 4 or 2 days. The day of oestrogen surge was considered as day ‘0’ of luteal phase. Luteal cells obtained from CL of these animals were incubated with hCG (2 and 200 pg/ml) or dbcAMP (2.5,25 and 100 M) for 3h at 37°C and progesterone secreted was estimated. Corpora lutea of normal cycling monkeys on day 10/16/22 of the luteal phase were used as controls. In addition the
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