N Appaji Rao
Articles written in Journal of Biosciences
Volume 1 Issue 1 March 1979 pp 13-24
Glutamine synthetase (L-glutamate : ammonia ligase, EC 22.214.171.124) from
Antibody, raised in the rabbit, against mung bean glutamine synthetase, completely inhibited the activity of the enzyme. Preincubation of the enzyme with glutamate and ATP, prior to the addition of the antibody, partially protected the enzyme against inhibition. The
Volume 2 Issue 3 September 1980 pp 211-225
A homogenous and crystalline form of nucleotide pyrophosphatase (EC 126.96.36.199) from
Volume 3 Issue 2 June 1981 pp 157-165
Retinol-binding protein and prealbumin were isolated from duck plasma by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose-and DEAE-Sephadex A-50, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and preparative Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weights of the retinol-binding protein-prealbumin complex, prealbumin and retinol-binding protein were found to be 75,000, 55,0000 and 20,000, respectively. On sodium dodecyl sulphate Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, prealbumin dissociated into identical subunits exhibiting a molecular weight of 13,500. Retinol-binding protein exhibited microheterogeneity on electrophoresis, whereas prealbumin moved as a single band unlike the multiple bands observed in chicken and rat. The ultraviolet and fluorescence spectra of the two proteins were similar to those isolated from other species. No carbohydrate moiety was detected in either retinol-binding protein or prealbumin. Duck retinol-binding protein and prealbumin showed cross-reactivity with their counterparts in chicken but differed immunologically from those of goat and man. Retinol-binding protein and prealbumin could be dissociated at low ionic strength, in 2M urea, by CM-sephadex chromatography or on preparative electrophoresis. Although the transport of retinol in duck plasma is mediated by carrier proteins as in other species, it is distinguished by the absence of microheterogeneity in prealbumin and of an apo-retinol-binding protein form that could be transported in the plasma.
Volume 3 Issue 2 June 1981 pp 167-178
The far-ultraviolet region circular dichroic spectrumof serine hydroxymethyltransferase from monkey liver showed that the protein is in an α-helical conformation. The near ultraviolet circular dichoric spectrum revealed two negative bands originating from the tertiary conformational environment of the aromatic amino acid residues. Addition of urea or guanidinium chloride perturbed the characteristic fluorescence and far ultraviolet circular dichroic spectrum of the enzyme. The decrease in (θ)222 and enzyme activity followed identical patterns with increasing concentrations of urea, whereas with guanidinium chloride, the loss of enzyme activity preceded the loss of secondary structure. 2-Chloroethanol, trifluoroethanol and sodium dodecyl sulphate enhanced the mean residue ellipticity values. In addition, sodium dodecyl sulphate also caused a perturbation of the fluorescence emission spectrum of the enzyme. Extremes of pH decreased the — (θ)222 value. Plots of — (θ)222and enzyme activity as a function of pH showed maximal values at pH 7.4–7.5. These results suggested the prevalence of “conformational flexibility” in the structure of serine hydroxymethyltransferase.
Volume 3 Issue 2 June 1981 pp 179-190
The homogeneous serine hydroxymethyltransferase from monkey liver was optimally activate at 60°C and the Arrhenius plot for the enzyme was nonlinear with a break at 15°C. The monkey liver enzyme showed high thermal stability of 62°C, as monitored by circular dichroism at 222 nm, absorbance at 280 nm and enzyme activity. The enzyme exhibited a sharp co-operative thermal transition in the range of 50°–70°
Volume 3 Issue 4 December 1981 pp 361-370
Free proline content in Ragi (
Volume 4 Issue 1 March 1982 pp 31-50
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (EC 188.8.131.52) was purified from the cytosolic fraction of sheep liver by ammonium sulphate fractionation, CM-Sephadex chromatography, gel filtration using Ultrogel ACA 34 and Blue Sepharose affinity chromatography. The homogeneity of the enzyme was rigorously established by Polyacrylamide gel and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectrofocusing, ultracentrifugation, immunodiffusion and Immunoelectrophoresis. The enzyme was a homotetramer with a molecular weight of 210,000 ±5000. The enzyme showed homotropic cooperative interactions with tetrahydrofolate (nH =2.8) and a hyperbolic saturation pattern with L-serine. At the lowest concentration of tetrahydrofolate used (0.2 mM), only 5% of the added folate was oxidized during preincubation and assay. ThenH value was independent of the time of preincubation. Preincubation of the enzyme with serine resulted in a partial loss of the cooperative interactions (nH =1.6) with tetrahydrofolate. The enzyme was regulated allosterically by interaction with nicotinamide nucleotides; NADH was a positive effector while NAD+ was a negative allosteric effector. The subunit interactions were retained even at the temperature optimum of 60‡C unlike in the case of the monkey liver enzyme, where these interactions were absent at higher temperatures. D-Cycloserine, a structural analogue of serine caused a sigmoid pattern of inhibition, in contrast with the observations on the monkey liver enzyme. Cibacron blue F3GA completely inhibited the enzyme and this inhibition could be reversed by tetrahydrofolate. Unlike in the monkey liver enzyme, NAD+ and NADH gave considerable protection against this inhibition. The sheep liver enzyme differs significantly in its kinetic and regulatory properties from the serine hydroxymethyltransferases isolated from other sources.
Volume 5 Issue 4 December 1983 pp 287-299
5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (EC 184.108.40.206) was purified from the cytosolic fraction of sheep liver by (NH4)2 SO4 fractionation, acid precipitation, DEAE-Sephacel chromatography and Blue Sepharose affinity chromatography. The homogeneity of the enzyme was established by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation and Ouchterlony immunodiffusion test. The enzyme was a dimer of molecular weight 1,66,000 ± 5,000 with a subunit molecular weight of 87,000 ±5,000. The enzyme showed hyperbolic saturation pattern with 5-methyltetrahydrofolate.
Volume 6 Issue 1 March 1984 pp 17-35
The specific activity of glutamine synthetase (L-glutamate: ammonia ligase, EC 220.127.116.11) in surface grown
L-glutamine nor regulated by covalent modification. Glutamine synthetase from
Volume 6 Issue 1 March 1984 pp 61-67
Water stress resulted in a specific response leading to a large and significant increase (80-fold) in free proline content of ragi (
Volume 6 Issue 2 June 1984 pp 233-248
Aspartate transcarbamylase (EC 18.104.22.168) was purified to homogeniety from germinated mung bean seedlings by treatment with carbamyl phosphate. The purified enzyme was a hexamer with a subunit molecular weight of 20,600. The enzyme exhibited multiple activity bands on Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which could be altered by treatment with carbamyl phosphate or UMP indicating that the enzyme was probably undergoing reversible association or dissociation in the presence of these effectors. The carbamyl phosphate stabilized enzyme did not exhibit positive homotropic interactions with carbamyl phosphate and hysteresis. The enzyme which had not been exposed to carbamyl phosphate showed a decrease in specific activity with a change in the concentration of both carbamyl phosphate and protein. The carbamyl phosphate saturation and UMP inhibition patterns were complex with a maximum and a plateau region. The partially purified enzyme also exhibited hysteresis and the hysteretic response, a function of protein concentration, was abolished by preincubation with carbamyl phosphate and enhanced by preincubation with UMP. All these observations are compatible with a postulation that the enzyme activity may be regulated by slow reversible association-dissociation dependent on the interaction with allosteric ligands
Volume 6 Issue 5 December 1984 pp 613-624
The fluorescein dye, rose bengal in the dark: (i) inhibited the activity of mung bean aspartate transcarbamylase (EC 22.214.171.124) in a non-competitive manner, when aspartate was the varied substrate; (ii) induced a lag in the time course of reaction and this hysteresis was abolished upon preincubation with carbamyl phosphate; and (iii) converted the multiple bands observed on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of enzyme into a single band. The binding of the dye to the enzyme induced a red shift in the visible spectrum of dye suggesting that it was probably interacting at a hydrophobic region in the enzyme. The dye, in the presence of light, inactivated the enzyme and the inactivation was not dependent on pH. All the effects of the dye could be reversed by UMP, an allosteric inhibitor of the enzyme. The loss of enzyme activity on photoinactivation and the partial protection afforded by N-phosphonoacetyl-L-aspartate, a transition state analog and carbamyl phosphate plus succinate, a competitive inhibitor for aspartate, as well as the reversal of the dye difference spectrum by N-phosphonoacetyl-L-aspartate suggested that in the mung bean aspartate transcarbamylase, unlike in the case of
Volume 7 Issue 3-4 June 1985 pp 269-287
The activity of glutamine synthetase from
Volume 11 Issue 1-4 March 1987 pp 265-274
Cibacron Blue F3G-A, a probe used to monitor nucleotide binding domains in enzymes, inhibited sheep liver 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase competitively with respect to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and NADPH. The
Volume 24 Issue 1 March 1999 pp 69-77 Articles
Equilibrium unfolding studies of sheep liver tetrameric serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT, EC 126.96.36.199) revealed that the enzyme assumed apparent random coil structure above 3 M guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl). In the presence of non-ionic detergent Brij-35 and polyethylene glycol, the 6 M GdnHCI unfolded enzyme could be completely (> 95%) refolded by a 40-fold dilution. The refolded enzyme was fully active and had kinetic constants similar to the native enzyme. The midpoint of inactivation (0.12 M GdnHCl) was well below the midpoint of unfolding (1.6±0.1 M GdnHCl) as monitored by far UV CD at 222 nm. In the presence of PLP, the midpoint of inactivation shifted to a higher concentration of GdnHCl (0.6 M) showing that PLP stabilizes the quaternary structure of the enzyme. However, 50% release of pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) from the active site occurred at a concentration (0.6 M) higher than the midpoint of inactivation suggesting that GdnHCl may also act as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme at low concentrations which was confirmed by activity measurements. PLP was not required for the initiation of refolding and inactive tetramers were the end products of refolding which could be converted to active tetramers upon the addition of PLP. Size exclusion chromatography of the apoenzyme showed that the tetramer unfolds via the intermediate formation of dimers. Low concentrations (0.3–0.6 M) of GdnHCl stabilized at least one intermediate which was in slow equilibrium with the dimer. The binding of ANS was maximum at 0.4–0.6 M GdnHCl suggesting that the unfolding intermediate that accumulates at this concentration is less compact than the native enzyme.
Volume 27 Issue 3 June 2002 pp 233-242
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), a pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme catalyzes the interconversion of L-Ser and Gly using tetrahydrofolate as a substrate. The gene encoding for SHMT was amplified by PCR from genomic DNA of
Volume 37 Issue 2 June 2012 pp 207-210