• M Subramanian

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Interaction of lysozyme with antibiotics-binding of penicillins to lysozyme

      M Subramanian B S Sheshadri M P Venkatappa

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      Binding of lysozyme with the antibiotics such as penicillin-G, penicillin-V and methicillin at different concentrations and pH was studied by equilibrium dialysis. Co-operative binding isotherms were observed at pH 5.0,7.0 and 9.0 with all the penicillins and the binding ratios decreased slightly with the increase of pH. The Gibbs free energy change calculated on the basis of Wyman’s binding potential concept decreased slightly with the increase of pH indicating slight decrease in the binding strength at higher pH in the case of all penicillins.

      The ultra-violet difference spectra of lysozyme-penicillin complexes showed a less intense peak in the region of 284–300 nm at pH 5.0. Only penicillin-G complex had a peak at pH 7.0 at these wavelengths with less intensity compared to that at pH 5.0. However, none of the penicillins showed discrete peaks in this region at pH 9.0. The appearance of peaks in the difference spectra of all these complexes at pH 5.0 and with only penicllin-G complex at pH 7.0 in the aromatic region indicated hydrophobic interactions with tryptophan residues as the binding sites. In addition, the ionic interactions with lysine residues in lysozyme were also occurring.

      The conformational changes induced by the binding of penicillins to lysozyme monitored by circular dichroism showed a slight decrease in the aromatic bands in the 320–250 nm region. However, in the 250–200 nm region, [θ]222nm values obtained at various concentrations of penicillins in the complex indicated an increased α-helical content generating a more ordered structure. These results led to the conclusion that both the hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions prevail in the binding of penicillins to lysozyme.

    • Interaction of proteins with detergents: Binding of cationic detergents with lysozyme

      M Subramanian B S Sheshadri M P Venkatappa

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      Binding studies of cationic detergents such as cetyl trimethylammonium bromide, Cetylpyridinium bromide and dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide with lysozyme were carried out by equilibrium dialysis, ultraviolet difference and circular dichroism techniques at 25 C. Binding isotherms at pH 5·0, 7·0 and 9·0 show cooperative binding at all concentrations of detergents and the number of available binding sites in lysozyme increases with pH. Gibbs free energy of binding calculated on the basis of Wymans’ binding potential concept increases with pH indicating increased binding strength at higher pH. The ultraviolet difference spectra of the detergent complexes with lysozyme at pH 7·0 and 9·0 in the region of 250–300 nm indicate the involvement of aromatic amino acid residues as probable binding sites and also the carboxylate groups since the binding is cooperative. The circular dichroism spectra also indicate the involvement of aromatic amino acid residues in the binding of these detergents. This is substantiated by the decrease in the intensity of the aromatic positive bands in the near ultraviolet region. The increase in the magnitude of [θ]222 nm values in the far ultraviolet region with the increase in the concentration of the detergent in the complex indicates conformational changes resulting in an increase of α-helical content producing a more ordered structure of lysozyme.These binding studies show that at pH 7·0 and 9·0, hydrophobic interactions play a major role, while at pH 5·0 only electrostatic interactions play prominent role in the binding of these detergents.

    • Plasminogen activator: Isolation and purification from Lymphosarcoma of ascites bearing mice

      M W Nulkar Rukmini Darad M Subramanian A R Pawse

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      Plasminogen activator secreted by lymphosarcoma (ascites) of mice was purified up to 163-fold by ammonium sulphate fractionation at 35% saturation and chromatography on p-aminobenzamidine-Sepharose 4B. The purified activator contained specific activity of 9980 IU/mg. The plasminogen activator displayed homogeneity by polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography. The activator consisted of a single polypeptide chain with an apparent molecular weight of 66,000 daltons as determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions as well as gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. Distinct differences between this activator and urokinase were discernible in respect of specific activities, fibrin affinity and immunochemical properties. The lymphosarcoma activator appears to be of tissue-type origin since it showed gross similarity to standard tissue plasminogen activator in terms of modes of binding to fibrin and immunological attributes.

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