• M R Raghavendra Rao

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Comparative studies on glucoamylases from three fungal sources

      P Manjunath M R Raghavendra Rao

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      Five commercial preparations of glucoamylases (three fromAspergillus niger, one each fromAspergillus foetidus andAspergillus candidus) were purified by ultrafiltration, Sepharose-gel filtration and DEAE-sephadex chromatography. Two forms of the enzyme, namely glucoamylase I and glucoamylase II were obtained from the fungi except from one strain ofA. Niger. All the enzymes appeared homogeneous by electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. The specific activities varied between 85 and 142 units. The pH and temperature optima were between 4 and 5, and 60‡C respectively. The molecular weight as determined by the sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ranged from 75,000 to 79,000 for glucoamylase I and 60,000 to 72,000 for glucoamylase II. OnlyA. niger glucoamylases contained phenylalanine at the N-terminal end. The amino acid composition of the enzymes was generally similar. However,A. niger andA. foetidus glucoamylases, in contrast toA. candidus enzymes, contained greater percentage of acidic than of basic amino acids. The enzymes contained 15 to 30% carbohydrate and 49 to 57 residues of monosaccharides per mol.A. niger enzymes contained mannose, glucose, galactose, xylose and glucosamine but theA. candidus enzyme lacked xylose and glucose and only xylose was absent inA, foetidus enzymes. Majority of the carbohydrate moieties were O-glycosidically linked through mannose to the hydroxyl groups of seline and threonine of the polypeptide chain.

    • Immunochemical relationship between glucoamylases I and II ofAspergillus niger

      P Manjunath M R Raghavendra Rao

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      Rabbit antisera were prepared against the purified glucoamylases I and II ofAspergillus niger. Relationships between the two enzyme forms were investigated by using the antisera in immunodiffusion and immunoinhibition experiments. Both the forms of glucoamylase gave a single continuous precipitin band demonstrating very close structural resemblance. They gave almost identical immunoprecipitation patterns and had the same equivalence points indicating that the two forms ofA. niger gluoamylases were immunologically identical. The enzyme treated with periodate was immunologically identical with the controls and had slightly less enzyme activity but showed greatly reduced stability on storage at 4‡ C.

    • Excretion of lysine byMicrococcus glutamicus

      Meena Lakshman M R Raghavendra Rao

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      Analysis of intracellular and extracellular lysine concentration during lysine fermentation byMicrococcus glutamicus AEC RN-13-6/1 indicated that lysine excretion occurs against a concentration gradient towards the end of the fermentation period. The capacity to excrete lysine against a concentration gradient may be a factor contributing to the high yield of lysine.

    • Aspartokinase of a lysine producing mutant ofMicrococcus glutamicus

      Meena Lakshman B C Shenoy M R Raghavendra Rao

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      Aspartokinase fromMicrococcus glutamicus AEC RN-13-6/1 [a homoserine requiring, S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine resistant, lysine producing strain] was purified 71 fold. The partially purified enzyme was inhibited by L-lysine. L-threonine, L-methionine, L-isoleucine, L-valine and L-phenylalanine activated the enzyme and reversed the inhibition by L-lysine. Aspartokinase activity was not derepressed by growth-limiting concentrations of L-threonine and/or L-methionine. It was not repressed by an excess of L-lysine (20 mM) and/or L-isoleucine (15.3 mM). The degree of activation or inhibition by amino acids was dependant on the composition of the growth medium. This observation is in contrast with the enzyme from the original (non-lysine-producing) strain which was inhibited by lysine or threonine and in a concerted manner by threonine plus lysine.

    • Purification and properties of diaminopimelate decarboxylase ofMicrococcus glutamicus

      Meena Lakshman B C Shenoy M R Raghavendra Rao

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      Diaminopimelate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.20) ofMicrococcus glutamicus ATCC 13059 was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme had an apparent molecular weight of 191,000 as determined by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. At protein concentrations of 20 and 10 μg per ml and in the absence of pyridoxal-5′-phosphate, it dissociated into a species of molecular weight 94,000. The polypeptide chain molecular weight as determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was 100,000. TheKm formeso diaminopimelate was 0.5 mM and that for pyridoxal-5′-phosphate was 0.6 μI. Sulphydryl groups and pyridoxal-5′-phosphate were essential for activity and stability. The enzyme was inhibited significantly by L-lysine and DL-aspartic β-semialdehyde.

    • Spectrophotometric assay of immobilized tannase

      L C Katwa M Ramakrishna M R Raghavendra Rao

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      A procedure for the assay of immobilized tannase with Polyacrylamide gel, collagen and Duolite-S-762 as matrices is described. It is based on the spectrophotometric determination of gallic acid formed by the enzymatic hydrolysis of tannic acid. The kinetic parameters of the enzymatic reaction have been studied and an assay procedure has been formulated. This method appears to be much more accurate than those reported earlier.

    • Studies on carbohydrate moieties ofAspergillus niger glucoamylase II: Isolation, purification and characterization of glycopeptides

      P Manjunath M R Raghavendra Rao

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      Six glycopeptide fractions namely GP-C1, GP-C2. GP-C3a.GP-C3b.GP-D, and GP-D2 were isolated after exhaustive digestion of glucoamylase II (Glucozyme) fromAspergillus niger with pronase. They were purified using gel-filtration. high-voltage paper electrophoresis and ion-exchange chromatography on Dowex-50 and Dowex-1. They appeared homogeneous on electrophoresis under different conditions of pHs. The molecular weights ranged from 1600 and 4000 for these glycopeptides. Ally of them contained serine at the N-terminal end. Serine and threonine were the major amino acids with glycine, alanine, proline and tryosine present as minor constituents. Carbohydrate analysis revealed the presence of different sugars. Based on this, the glycopeptides were grouped into three types: (1) GP-C1 and GP-C2 containing mannose, glucose and galactose; (2) GP-C3a, and GP-C3b,containing mannose glucose and glucosamine; and (3) GP-D1 and GP-D2, containing mannose. glucose, galactose and xylose. Most sugar constituents in each glycopeptide occured in non-integral ratios implying a microheterogeneity of the carbohydrate moiety inAspergillus niger glucoamylase.

    • Studies on carbohydrate moieties of the glycoprotein, glucoamylase II ofAspergillus niger: Nature of carbohydrate-peptide linkage and structure of oligosaccharides

      P Manjunath M R Raghavendra Rao

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      Electrophoretically homogeneous type 1 (GP-C1 and GP-C2), type 2 (GP-C3a and GP-C3b,) and type 3 (GP-D1, and GP-D2) glycopeptides fromAspergillus niger glucoamylase II (Manjunath and Raghavendra Rao, preceding paper) were separately treated with alkaline borohydride. The (\-eliminated oligosaccharides were subjected to single and sequential digestion with specific glycosidases and the products analysed by gas liquid chromatography. The studies revealed that carbohydrate moieties were present as mannose, Man-Man-, and trisaccharide structures, namely, (a) GIc-Man-Man-, (b) Gal-Man-Man, (c) Man-Man-Man-, (d) GlcNAc-Man-Man-, and (e) Xyl-Man-Man. None of the glycopeptides contained all the trisaccharide structures (a) to (e). Type 1 glycopeptide contained structures (a), (b) and (c); type 2, (a) and (d) and type 3, (a), (b) and (e). The number of carbohydrate units (mono-, di-and trisaccharides) present in the major glycopeptides was determined and tentative structures for the glycopeptides proposed. Carbohydrate units appeared to occur in clusters of 4 to 7 in each glycopeptide, a structure unique to the carbohydrate moiety inAspergillus niger glucoamylase. Based on carbohydrate analysis and yields of glycopeptide, the number of units of each type of glycopeptide present in glucoamylase II was tentatively calculated to give two of type Man:Glc:Gal = 12–15:l:l, one of type Man:Glc:GlcN = 10-l1:1:2 and one of type Man :GIc :Gal:Xyl = 4–8:0.1:0.5-0.8:0.3-1 glycopeptides.

    • Structure and stability of glucoamylase II fromAspergillus niger: A circular dichroism study

      B C Shenoy A G Appu Rao M R Raghavendra Rao

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      Glucoamylase II (EC 3.2.1.3) fromAspergillus niger has 31 % α-helix, 36 %Β- structure and rest aperiodic structure at pH 4.8 as analysed by the method of Provencher and Glockner (1981,Biochemistry, 20,33). In the near ultra-violet circular dichroism spectrum the enzyme exhibits peaks at 304, 289, 282 and 257 nm and troughs at 285, 277 and 265 nm respectively. The enzyme activity and structure showed greater stability at pH 4.8 than at pH 7.0, were highly sensitive to alkaline pH but less sensitive to acid pH values. The enzyme retained most of its catalytic activity and structure even on partial removal of carbohydrate moieties by periodate treatment but was less stable at higher temperatures and storage at 30‡C. Reduction of the periodate treated enzyme did not reverse the loss of stability. Binding of the synthetic substrate,p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucoside, perturbed the environment around aromatic amino acids and caused a decrease in the ordered structure.

    • Fungal glucoamylases

      B C Shenoy L C Katwa A G Appu Rao M R Raghavendra Rao

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      The purification and properties of glucoamylase (α-l,4-glucan glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.3) from different fungal sources have been compared. The studies on the conformation and activity of the native enzyme at a function of pH, temperature, substrate concentration and the effect of denaturants and on the role of carbohydrate moiety on structure and stability have been reviewed. The chemical modification of the active centre, binding kinetics of the substrate and active site and the mechanism of action have been summarized. They differ in their fine structure as revealed by their near ultra-violet circular dichroism spectra and contain 30–35 % α-helix, 24–36 %Β-structure and the rest aperiodic structure. The activity of the enzyme is very sensitive to the environment around aromatic aminoacid residues.

      The glucoamylases are glycoprotein in nature, differ in their content and nature of carbohydrate from different sources. The carbohydrate moiety plays an important role in stabilising the native conformation of the enzyme and is not involved in activity and antigenecity.

      At the active site of the enzyme, two tryptophan and two carboxyl (glutamate or aspartate) groups are present. It is likely that the histidine and tyrosine residues which are present away from the active site are involved in binding of the substrate. There seems to be seven subsites which are involved in binding of the substrate and the catalytic site is situated in between 1 and 2 subsites. In breaking of α-1,4-, α-1,3-, and α-l,6-bonds only one active centre is involved.

      Studies on the immobilization of either glucoamylase alone or as a part of a multienzyme system have been reviewed briefly

    • Effect of chemical modification on struture and activity of glucoamylase fromAspergillus candidus andRhizopus species

      B C Shenoy A G Appu Rao M R Raghavendra Rao

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      The histidine, tyrosine, tryPtoPhan and carboxyl grouPs in the enzyme glucoamylase fromAsPergillus Candidus andRhizoPus sPecies were modified using grouP sPecific reagents. Treatment of the enzyme with diethylPyrocarbonate resulted in the modification of 0.3 and 1 histidine residues with only a slight loss in activity (10% and 35%) of glucoamylase fromAsPergillus candidus andRhizoPus sPecies resPectively. Modification of tyrosine either by N-acetylimidazole or [I125]-leads to a Partial loss of activity. Under denaturing conditions, maltose did not helP in Protecting the enzyme against tyrosine modification or inactivation. Treatment with 2-Hydroxy-5-nitro benzyl bromide in the Presence of urea, Photooxidation at PH 9.0, N-bromosuccinamide at PH 4.8 resulted in a comPlete loss of activity. However, the results of exPeriments in the Presence of maltose and at PH 4.8 Photooxidation and N-bromosuccinamide treatment suggested the Presence of two tryPtoPhan residues at the active site. There was a comPlete loss of enzyme activity when 10 and 28 carboxyl grouPs fromAsPergillus candidus andRhizoPus, resPectively were modified. Modification in the Presence of substrate maltose, showed at least two carboxyl grouPs were Present at the active site of enzyme and that only one active center seems to be involved in breaking ally 3 tyPes of α-glucosidic linkages namely α-1, 4, α-1, 6 and α-l, 3.

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