• K Krishnamurthy Rao

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Spo0A positively regulates epr expression by negating the repressive effect of co-repressors, SinR and ScoC, in Bacillus subtilis

      Monica Gupta Madhulika Dixit K Krishnamurthy Rao

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      Bacillus subtilis under nutritional deprivation exhibits several physiological responses such as synthesis of degradative enzymes, motility, competence, sporulation, etc. At the onset of post-exponential phase the global response regulator, Spo0A, directly or indirectly activates the expression of genes involved in the above processes. These genes are repressed during the exponential phase by a group of proteins called transition state regulators, e.g. AbrB, ScoC and SinR. One such post-exponentially expressed gene is epr, which encodes a minor extracellular serine protease and is involved in the swarming motility of B. subtilis. Deletion studies of the upstream region of epr promoter revealed that epr is co-repressed by transition state regulators, SinR and ScoC. Our study shows that Spo0A positively regulates epr expression by nullifying the repressive effect of co-repressors, SinR and ScoC. We demonstrate via in vitro mobility shift assays that Spo0A binds to the upstream region of epr promoter and in turn occludes the binding site of one of the co-repressor, SinR. This explains the mechanism behind the positive regulatory effect of Spo0A on epr expression.

    • Phosphorylation of DegU is essential for activation of amyE expression in Bacillus subtilis

      Monica Gupta K Krishnamurthy Rao

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      Alpha (𝛼)-amylase (amyE) is one of the major exo-enzymes secreted by Bacillus subtilis during the post-exponential phase. The DegS-DegU two-component system regulates expression of majority of post-exponentially expressed genes in B. subtilis. It has been demonstrated that varying levels of the phosphorylated form of DegU (DegU-P) control different cellular processes. Exo-protease production is observed when effective concentration of DegU-P rises in the cell, whereas swarming motility is favoured at very low amounts of DegU-P. In this study we show that like other exo-proteases, expression of amyE is positively regulated by increase in DegU-P levels in the cell. We also demonstrate that residues at the DNA-binding helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif of DegU are necessary for the amyE expression. This observation is further reinforced by demonstrating the direct interaction of DegU on amyE promoter.

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      Plant mitochondria are quite distinct and have unique features, such as a cyanide-insensitive alternate pathway. They also interact with chloroplasts to optimize photosynthetic carbon assimilation.

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