• K Cheirmaraj

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Analysis, characterization and diagnostic use of circulating filarial antigen in bancroftian filariasis

      K A Parkhe M V R Reddy K Cheirmaraj P Ramaprasad B C Harinath

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      Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of circulating filarial antigen fraction-2 isolated from plasma of microfilaraemic patients withWuchereria bancrofti infection has shown 21 bands with molecular weights ranging from 12 to 120 kDa. The gel (12 cm) was sliced at an interval of one cm and the eluates of all the gel slicesviz., CFA2-1 to CFA2-12 showed the presence of filarial antigen by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The low molecular weight circulating filarial antigen fractions were found to share a common epitope withWuchereria bancrofti microfilariae excretory-secretory antigen and urinary filarial antigen. The 3 antigen fractions CFA2-1, CFA2-9 and CFA2-12 showed higher sensitivity in detecting filarial immunoglobulin M antibodies than immunoglobulin G antibodies. However CFA2-9 fraction was found useful in serological differentiation of microfilaraemics from those with disease manifestations when filarial immunoglobulin G antibodies were detected. The antigenic epitope of CFA2-1 appears to be a carbohydrate, whereas CFA2-9 appears to be protein in nature.

    • Differential reactivity of filarial antigens with human sera from bancroftian filariasis endemic zone

      K Cheirmaraj M V R Reddy B C Harinath

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      The reacting pattern of circulating filarial antigen fraction-2 fromWuchereria bancrofti and soluble antigen from adultBrugia malayi with bancroftian filarial sera were analysed by immunoblotting technique and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Microfilaraemic sera reacted specifically with proteins of molecular weight 200, 120, 97, 56, 54, 43, 26 and 17 kDa of circulating Filarial antigen fraction-2 and 44, 40, 38, 31, 22 and 18 kDa ofBrugia malayi adult soluble antigen. Clinical filarial sera identified protein molecules of 56, 54 and 42 kDa of circulating filarial antigen fraction-2 and 19, 16 and 14 kDa ofBrugia malayi adult soluble antigen. Some components of both the antigen preparation were also identified by endemic normal serai.e.proteins 120, 97, 62, 43 and 33 kDa of circulating filarial antigen fraction-2 and 170, 120, 43, 31 and 12 kDa ofBrugia malayi adult soluble antigen. One of the sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electropherosis fractions of circulating filarial antigen fraction-2 (CFA2-8) andBrugia malayi adult soluble antigen fraction-6 when used in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay could differentiate microfilaraemic sera from endemic normal and clinical filarial sera. The other antigen fractions (CFA2-2, 6 and 7 andBmA-2) showed a high geometric mean titre of filarial immunoglobulin G antibodies in endemic normal sera when compared to microfilaraemia and clinical filarial sera. These proteins need to be further studied to assess their involvement in protecting from filarial infection in an endemic area.

    • Immunoprophylaxis against filarial parasite,Brugia malayi: potential of excretory-secretory antigens in inducing immunity

      K Cheirmaraj V Chenthamarakshan M V R Reddy B C Harinath

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      The role of excretory-secretory antigens in inducing immunity in the host againstBrugia malayi microfilariae and infective larvae was studied byin vitro antibody dependent cell-mediated reaction as well asin vivo inoculation of filarial parasites within a microchamber in the host. The immune sera of jirds raised againstBrugia malayi microfilarial and infective larval excretory-secretory antigens(Bm Mf ESA andBm L3 ESA) promoted the adherence of peritoneal exudate cells toBrugia malayi microfilariae and infective larvaein vitro and induced cytotoxicity to the parasites within 48 h. The antiBm Mf ESA serum was more effective than antiBm L3 ESA serum in inducing cytotoxicity to microfilariae and both antisera had a similar cytotoxic effect on infective larvae. In the microchambers implanted in the immune jirds, host cells could migrate and adhere to the microfilariae and infective larvae and kill them within 48–72 h. Further,Mastomys natalensis immunized againstBm Mf ESA and L3 ESA generated a high degree of protective response against circulating microfilariae. These results suggest that excretory-secretory antigens are effective in inducing resistance against filarial parasites and thus have potential in immunoprophylaxis.

    • Immunoprophylactic studies with a 43 kDa human circulating filarial antigen and a cross reactive 120 kDaBrugia malayi sodium dodecyl sulphate soluble antigen in filariasis

      V Chenthamarakshan K Cheirmaraj M V R Reddy B C Harinath

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      Bancroftian filariasis is a major public health problem affecting about 120 million people all over the world. Immunoprophylaxis may serve as an additional adjunct along with chemotherapy and anti larval measures for successful filaria control. Circulating filarial antigen fraction (CFA2-6) containing 43 kDa antigen and adultBrugia malayi sodium dodecyl sulphate (S DS) soluble antigen fraction BmA-2 with a 120 kDa molecule were earlier shown to be reactive with endemic normal sera by immunoblotting and indirect ELISA techniques. BmA-2 was found to be highly cross reactive with CFA2-6. Sera raised against both the antigen fractions showed about 90 % cytotoxicity to the parasites in the presence of jird peritoneal cells inin vitro as well as byin situ micropore chamber implantation technique. Further inin vivo studies using animal model, jirds CFA2-6 and BmA-2 could induce about 90% protection to infection in immunized animals. In passive transfer studies of immunity it has been observed that BmA-2 induced protection is mainly antibody mediated.

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