• JEGADEESAN RAMALINGAM

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Advances in the Xoo-rice pathosystem interaction and its exploitation in disease management

      JOHNSON BESLIN JOSHI LOGANATHAN ARUL JEGADEESAN RAMALINGAM SIVAKUMAR UTHANDI

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      Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is one of the devastating diseases of riceworldwide. The pathogen reported to cause 70% crop loss in some of the susceptible genotypes under diseasefavoring environments, viz., temperature ranging between 25 to 34 deg C and relative humidity more than 70%. InXoo, about 245 genes govern the pathogenicity and host specificity. The hypersensitive response andpathogenicity (hrp) genes responsible for disease occurrence were clustered in the pathogenicity island of 31.3Kb. The protein secreted through type three secretory system and type one secretory system mediates infectionand establishment of the pathogen inside the host. However, elicitor molecules from Xoo triggered the resistantresponse in rice against the pathogen. An array of resistant genes (R genes) was known to be invoked by thehost to combat the bacterial infection. To date, of the 45 Xa genes in rice, nine were cloned and characterized.The evolution of new races has made the task of developing resistant rice genotypes more challenging as itdemands a comprehensive breeding strategy involving the best use of R genes from the existing gene pool.Thus, to combat the infection from the existing races and to slow down the emergence of new Xoo races,pyramiding two or more R genes was found to be effective against bacterial blight disease. In India, thesuccessfully commercialized example includes the development of rice genotypes, viz., Improved Pusa Basmati-1, Improved Samba Mahsuri, PR106, Type 3 Basmati, and Mahsuri with selected R genes, viz., xa5, Xa4,xa13 and Xa21 against bacterial blight resistance. This review primarily portray Xoo-rice interactions andprovides opportunities for its effective management through sustainable technologies.

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