The Pyrenean population of the endangered bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) is the largest natural population in Europe. In this study, its current genetic variability was assessed using 110 animals of the recent population in order to know what the present situation. Sex identification by DNA methodology in the 110 bearded vultures, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and eight microsatellite markers in 87 bearded vultures have been analysed. Our results for sex identification present a number of 49 males and 61 females; no significant differences for number of males and females in this population have been observed. mtDNA studies indicate that nucleotide and haplotype diversities and number of variable sites were low. Tajima’s D test and Fu and Li’s D* and F* tests suggest that mutations are selectively neutral and the population is expanding. A mean number of alleles per locus and a mean observed heterozygosity have been obtained by microsatellite analysis. FIS is not high, and inbreeding depression could be discarded in the near future. The results suggest that the Pyrenean population of bearded vultures have to be controlled in order to avoid the loss of genetic variability. This data should be taken into account when considering conservation plans for the species.