• Inho Hwang

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Effects of Sunphenon and Polyphenon 60 on proteolytic pathways, inflammatory cytokines and myogenic markers in H2𝑂2-treated C2C12 cells

      Allur Subramaniyan Sivakumar Inho Hwang

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      The effect of Sunphenon and Polyphenon 60 in oxidative stress response, myogenic regulatory factors, inflammatory cytokines, apoptotic and proteolytic pathways on H2O2-induced myotube atrophy was addressed. Cellular responses of H2O2-induced C2C12cells were examined, including mRNA expression of myogenic regulatory factors, such as MyoD and myogenin, inflammatory pathways, such as TNF-𝛼 and NF-kB, as well as proteolytic enzymes, such as 𝜇-calpain and m-calpain. The pre-treatment of Sunphenon (50 𝜇g/mL)/Polyphenon 60 (50 𝜇g/mL) on H2O2-treated C2C12 cells significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression of myogenin and MyoD when compared to those treated with H2O2-induced alone. Additionally, the mRNA expression of 𝜇-calpain and m-calpain were significantly (𝑝 < 0.05) increased in H2O2-treated C2C12 cells, whereas pre-treatment with Sunphenon/Polyphenon significantly down-regulated the above genes, namely 𝜇-calpain and m-calpain. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of TNF-𝛼 and NF-kB were significantly increased in H2O2-treated C2C12 cells, while pre-treatment with Sunphenon (50 𝜇g/mL)/Polyphenon 60 (50 𝜇g/mL) significantly (𝑝 < 0.05) down-regulated it when compared to the untreated control group. Subsequent analysis of DNA degeneration and caspase activation revealed that Sunphenon (50 𝜇g/mL)/Polyphenon 60 (50 𝜇g/mL) inhibited activation of caspase-3 and showed an inhibitory effect on DNA degradation. From this result, we know that, in stress conditions, 𝜇-calpain may be involved in the muscle atrophy through the suppression of myogenin and MyoD. Moreover, Sunphenon may regulate the skeletal muscle genes/promote skeletal muscle recovery by the up-regulation of myogenin and MyoD and suppression of 𝜇-calpain and inflammatory pathways and may regulate the apoptosis pathways. Our findings suggest that dietary supplementation of Sunphenon might reduce inflammatory events in muscle-associated diseases, such as myotube atrophy.

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