Articles written in Journal of Biosciences
Volume 23 Issue 2 June 1998 pp 131-136
The aim of the present work is to design an electrode for biosensors by covalent immobilization of the redox enzyme. In the covalently modified electrode, the biocatalyst is located close to the electrode surface and this is expected to enhance the electron transfer rate from the enzyme to the electrode. Several methods of covalent immobilization of enzymes onto a glassy carbon surface are described. We have chosen horse radish peroxidase enzyme in our study but any other suitable enzyme can be immobilized depending on the intended use. A three step procedure that includes (i) heat treatment of matrix at l00-l10°C to remove volatiles and absorbates, (ii) chemjcal pretreatment to introduce functional groups like -OH, -NO2, -Br etc. followed by (iii) glutaraldehyde coupling of the enzyme (for the nitrated matix after subsequent reduction) or modification of the matrix by carboxymethylation and enzyme coupling using carbodiimide (for hydroxylated matrix) was followed. The amount of enzyme immobilized onto the carbon surface was estimated by spectrophotometric enzymatic activity assay, commonly used for the soluble enzyme. We found that simple nitration did not introduce any significant amount of functional groups and the matrix with hydrogen peroxide pretreatment showed the highest enzyme loading of 0.05 U/mg of carbon matrix. The HRP enzyme electrode was tested in a rotating disk experiment for its response with the substrate.
Volume 24 Issue 1 March 1999 pp 43-48 Articles
We have studied the glucose oxidase immobilized carbon paste electrodes in the presence and absence of small mediator molecules. We have used p-benzoquinone and riboflavin as mediators in our studies. The effect of mediator molecules on the electron transfer between the enzyme redox centre and the electrode surface was explained from the cyclic voltammograms and rotating disk electrode data. In the absence of oxygen, we have noted that the mediators play a central role in the electron transfer. We have also proposed a possible mechanism for the electron transfer from enzyme active site to the electrode surface via mediators, based on our observations.