The testis of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) consists of type A and early type B spermatogonia together with inactive Leydig and Sertoli cells. A single injection of human chorionic gonadotropin induced marked changes in the morphology of the testis and in the serum androgen levels within a period of 72 h. Morphological changes include spermatogonial proliferation, activation of Leydig and Sertoli cells, organization of seminiferous lobules and formation of lobular lumen in the testis. Leydig cells were enlarged, exhibiting characteristics of steroid-producing cells. Sertoli cells become elongated, show signs of high cellular activity and remain in close contact with spermatogonia. The lobular organization was achieved much earlier than the progression of spermatogenesis to late type B spermatogonia. Even 6 h after hCG injection, a significant increase in plasma levels of 11-ketotestosterone was observed, followed by a further time dependent increase. Plasma testosterone levels were also increased after injection, but the increase was much less than that of 11-ketotestosterone.