Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Quantitative detection of neurotransmitter using aptamer: From diagnosis to therapeutics


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      Neurotransmitters, the small molecule chemical messenger responsible for nervous system regulation and cancontrol joy, fear, depression, insomnia, craving for carbohydrates, drugs, and alcohols. Variation in neurotransmitterlevels is a characteristic manifestation of several neurological diseases. Accurate diagnosis of thesediseases caused due to an imbalance in neurotransmitter level followed by impaired transmission of signalsbetween neurons and other body parts remains a great challenge for the clinicians. Recent evidences reveal,artificial single-stranded nucleotides called ‘aptamer’ are widely used as biosensors, antibody substitutes,diagnostic agents, and for targeted therapy. These aptamers are superior candidate both for early detection anddiagnosis of many neurological disorders caused due to suboptimal level of neurotransmitters. Presently, noninvasiveneurotransmitter detection by aptamer has been found to be an easy, fast, and cost-effective choice. Inaddition, increased specificity, stability, affinity, and reproducibility of aptamers, high throughput screening ofaptamer-based sensing platforms have been observed. Moreover, clinical applicability of aptamer has alsoproved to be efficacious, though still at a preliminary stage. Herein, we review salient features of aptamerbasedsensing technology used for neurotransmitter detection particularly their chemical modifications,selection, assay development, immobilization, therapeutic efficiency, and stability for early diagnosis of diseasescaused due to neurotransmitter imbalance.

    • COVID-19 and central nervous system interplay: A big picture beyond clinical manifestation


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      The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been declared a pandemic. Global research updates confirm that the infected patients manifest a range ofclinical symptoms and sometimes remain entirely asymptomatic, posing a greater threat to the people comingin contact. Despite several case reports coming up every day, our knowledge about the neurotropic mechanismof the SARS-CoV-2, immunological responses, and the mode of disease progression and mechanism of crosstalkbetween the central nervous system (CNS), heart, lungs, and other major organs is not complete. Report ofanosmia, ataxia, dysgeusia, and altered psychological status of the infected COVID-19 patients offers someclue to the possible route of viral entry and multiplication. In this review, we have critically assessed theinvolvement of CNS dysregulation in COVID-19 patients. The probable mechanism of immunologicalresponses, the impairment of the coagulation pathway, the onset of cytokine storm, its interplay with the HPAaxis, and hypoxia are discussed in detail here. Based on the latest research findings and some case reports ofhospitalized COVID-19 patients, it is evident that the CNS involvement in disease progression is alarming.Accurate and timely detection of viral load in CNS is necessary to allow prompt and effective treatmentmodalities.

      Possible entry sites of SARS-CoV-2 to the central nervous system of human being and the downstream manifestations.

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