• C Ramakrishnan

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Metal binding to pyridoxal derivatives. An NMR study of the interaction of Eu(III) with pyridoxal phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate

      B N Narasinga Rao C Ramakrishnan P Balaram

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      The solution conformations of pyridoxal-5′ -phosphate and pyridoxamine-5′-phosphate have been investigated using Eu(III) as a nuclear magnetic resonance shift probe. Binding of Eu(III) to pyridoxal phosphate results in the formation of two complexes, at the phosphate group and theo-hydroxy-aldehyde moiety, which are in slow exchange on the nuclear magnetic resonance time-scale. The lanthanide-induced pseudo contact shifts calculated using the McConnell-Robertson equation (J. Chem. Soc. (1950), 22, 1561) are in good agreement with the experimentally observed values for both pyridoxal phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate and lead to a family of closely related conformations.

    • Cyclic peptides — Small and big and their conformational aspects

      C Ramakrishnan P K C Paul K Ramnarayan

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      Cyclic peptides form an interesting class of compounds for study by conformational analysis, by virtue of their unique conformational features and biological properties. The small cyclic peptides having 3-6 peptide units in their ring, show a variety of conformational characteristics such as occurrence ofcis peptide units, flexibility of peptide dimension and variety in hydrogen bonding. The different possible conformations of cyclic tri- and hexa-peptides are given and certain specific conformational features are discussed for cyclic tetra and pentapeptides. For higher cyclic peptides, the hydrogen bonding requirement for stability of the backbone of the ring, is seen to be kept to a minimum. These various features and their significance are examined and discussed in the light of energy minimization studies and analysis of available experimental data.

    • Standard dimensions forcis N-methyl peptide unit and flexibility ofcis peptide units

      K Ramnarayan C Ramakrishnan

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      The mean dimensions of thecis N-methyl peptide unit have been arrived at by analysing the crystal structure data on compounds containing such units. These dimensions can be used as standard in conformational studies on cyclic peptides. While the bonds meeting at C are almost coplanar, those meeting at N show a slight pyramidal disposition. A comparison of the dimensions of the normal and N-methylatedcis peptide units show that there are perceptible differences in the parameters connected with N. In addition, the flexibility of thecis peptide unit has been analysed by studying the distribution of the parameters in different classes of compounds such as cyclic di, tri and higher peptides. The salient features are: (i) The angle CαCN in cyclic dipeptide and the angle CδNCα in higher peptides tend to be lower, when the peptide unit is associated with a prolyl residue; (ii) in cyclic tripeptides the internal anglesviz., CαCN and CNCα are significantly larger thereby increasing the intra-annular space; (iii) the bond Cα-C is distinctly shorter when it occurs in cyclic dipeptides. The results lead to the conclusion that thecis peptide unit takes up aneed-based flexibility in its dimension.

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