Phenotypic variability for abdominal pigmentation in females of an Indian natural population ofDrosophila melanogaster was studied using isofemale lines and by rearing the larvae and pupae at 4 different temperatures ranging from 20–30°C. The dark pigmented area was found to increase in all the three segments when the growth temperature decreases. A significant positive correlation was detected for the occurrence of dark pigmentation in the 5th and 6th segments in each growth temperature but for other comparisons the correlation was not regular. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out both for individual segments over different growth temperatures and also for each temperature over the three abdominal segments and in all cases found to be statistically significant. The results are quite different from the earlier observation in FrenchDrosophila melanogaster and suggest that genes controlling pigmentation are temperature dependent; temperature could affect post-transitional events involved in pigmentation. The present findings also clearly indicate that significant genotype-environment interaction exists, responsible for the production of desired phenotype at the opportune moment during the life span of a species.