The purified flagellar fraction ofLeishmania donovani promastigotes consists of 30–35 polypeptides. Antiserum raised against this fraction reacts with both flagella and pellicular membrane antigens as evident from immunoblot and immunofluorescence studies. Only 3 of these immunoreactive polypeptides are flagellum-specific. The antiserum agglutinates the cells and inhibits their growth in liquid culture medium. Moreover, glucose uptake and glucose-stimulated oxygen uptake of the promastigotes are significantly inhibited by the antiserum. The results indicate that the antiserum has a profound lethal effect on the invitro propagation of the parasite.