• Anil Prakash

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Evidence of a humoral immune response against the prokaryotic expressed N-terminal autoprotease (Npro) protein of bovine viral diarrhoea virus

      Niranjan Mishra Katherukamem Rajukumar Shruti Shrikant Pitale Anil Prakash Ram Kumar Nema Sthita Pragnya Behera Shiv Chandra Dubey

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      Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle and sheep belonging to the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae. Although the BVDV non-structural N-terminal protease (Npro) acts as an interferon antagonist and subverts the host innate immunity, little is known about its immunogenicity. Hence, we expressed a recombinant BVDV Npro–His fusion protein (28 kDa) in E. coli and determined the humoral immune response generated by it in rabbits. The antigenicity of the Npro protein was confirmed by western blot using anti-BVDV hyperimmune cattle, sheep and goat serum, and anti-Npro rabbit serum. When rabbits were immunized with the Npro protein, a humoral immune response was evident by 4 weeks and persisted till 10 weeks post immunization as detected by ELISA and western blot. Despite Npro-specific antibodies remaining undetectable in 80 serum samples from BVDV-infected sheep and goats, BVDV hyperimmune sera along with some of the field cattle, sheep and goat sera with high BVDV neutralizing antibody titres were found positive for Npro antibodies. Our results provide evidence that despite the low immunogenicity of the BVDV Npro protein, a humoral immune response is induced in cattle, sheep and goats only with repeated BVDV exposure.

    • siRNAs targeting PB2 and NP genes potentially inhibit replication of Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus

      Padmanava Behera Shanmugasundaram Nagarajan Harshad V Murugkar Semmannan Kalaiyarasu Anil Prakash Ragini Gothalwal Shiv Chandra Dubey Diwakar D Kulkarni Chakradhar Tosh

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      Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is a threat to animal and public health worldwide. Till date, the H5N1 virus has claimed 402 human lives, with a mortality rate of 58% and has caused the death or culling of millions of poultry since 2003. In this study, we have designed three siRNAs (PB2-2235, PB2-479 and NP-865) targeting PB2 and NP genes of avian influenza virus and evaluated their potential, measured by hemagglutination (HA), plaque reduction and Real time RT-PCR assay, in inhibiting H5N1 virus (A/chicken/Navapur/7972/2006) replication in MDCK cells. The siRNAs caused 8- to 16-fold reduction in virus HA titers at 24 h after challenged with 100TCID50 of virus. Among these siRNAs, PB2-2235 offered the highest inhibition of virus replication with 16-fold reduction in virus HA titer, 80% reduction in viral plaque counts and 94% inhibition in expression of specific RNA at 24 h. The other two siRNAs had 68–73% and 87–88% reduction in viral plaque counts and RNA copy number, respectively. The effect of siRNA on H5N1 virus replication continued till 48h (maximum observation period). These findings suggest that PB2-2235 could efficiently inhibit HPAI H5N1 virus replication.

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