• Abdul-Salam Abdul-Ghani

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Changes inγ-aminobutyric acid during different stages of picrotoxin-induced seizure, and the effect of pretreatment withγ-acetylenic GABA and phenobarbital

      Abdul-Salam Abdul-Ghani

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      Changes in GABA content of various brain areas during different stages of picrotoxin-induced seizures and following pretreatment with the anti-convulsants phenobarbital andγ-acetylenic GABA were studied. Picrotoxin (6mg/kg) produced clonic/tonic convulsions associated with a 34% reduction in GABA content of the sensory motor cortex. A reduction of 24% was observed 1 min before the onset of seizure and the reduction in GABA content was reversible 20 min after the convulsion. No significant changes were observed in the cerebellum or spinal cord/medulla oblongata. Pretreatment with phenobarbital (100mg/kg) delayed the onset of convulsion and decreased the mortality rate without causing any change in GABA content at the pre-convulsive, convulsive or post-convulsive stages.γ-Acetylenic GABA (100mg/kg) has elevated GABA levels in different areas of the brain by 2–3-fold after 60 min treatment. This increase was reduced by 44% during the onset of picrotoxin-induced seizures. Picrotoxin convulsion can occur in the presence of normal, reduced or even elevated brain GABA content. The only consistent factor is a one-third reduction in GABA content before the onset of seizure.

    • Elevated concentration of glycogen in cobalt induced epileptogenic focus

      Nabeel Nahas Abdul-Salam Abdul-Ghani

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      Changes in the concentration of glycogen in various areas of the brain of epileptic rats were investigated. Epilepsy was induced by implantation of cobalt discs on the right sensory motor cortex and epileptic animals have shown clear tonic-clonic jerks of the contra-lateral fore and hind limbs.

      It was found that glycogen concentration was increased by 29% in the epileptogenic sensory motor cortex as compared to the same area in the contra-lateral hemisphere. Glycogen concentration in other areas within the same hemisphere remained unaffected.

      Implantation of nickel or copper on the same sensory motor cortex, which did not cause the typical limb jerks of epilepsy, had no effect on glycogen concentration in the same treated areas. Assay of relevant metabolites in the epileptic cortex showed an increase in the concentration of pyruvate and glucose-6-phosphate, by 218% and 112% respectively. The results suggest that the increased glycogen concentration in epileptogenic focus results from increased uptake of glucose due to neuronal hyperexcitability.

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