Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Do males bond? A study of male-male relationships in Nicobar long-tailed macaques Macaca fascicularis umbrosus


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      In primates, males compete for a mate, which is a non-sharable resource. This makes the conditions lessconducive for males to have stable relationships. One such special kind of relationship is a bond where theinteractions are reciprocated, equitable and differentiated. Bonds in macaque societies are based on the degreeof within-group contest competition for mates which is dependent on the synchronization of female fertilephase and reliability of fertility signals. Species of the Fascicularis group, including Nicobar subspecies, showintermediate reliability in the signals with mild peaks, and studies have shown reciprocity but no differentiation.We conducted a study on a group of wild Nicobar long-tailed macaques Macaca fascicularis umbrosusto understand the existing patterns of male-male relationships. We examined whether there is reciprocity inaffiliation among the individuals and whether the rate of affiliation is balanced. We also measured the dominancelinearity and steepness in the group to understand the monopolizability of females. We used socialnetwork analysis to understand whether the relations are differentiated based on hierarchical position andwhether the high-ranking individuals are the most central individuals in the distribution of grooming in thegroup. We found that there is reciprocity among the males although that is not equitable. There was no rank relateddifferentiation of affiliation among the males of the group. Instead, the identities of individualsinfluenced affiliation patterns. Our results correspond to the existent strong relationships but lack of social bondotherwise found in the Fascicularis group of macaques.

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