Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Predicted secondary structure of maltodextrin Phosphorylase fromEscherichia coli as deduced using Chou-Fasman model

      Anil Kumar

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      Secondary structure of maltodextrin Phosphorylase fromEscherichia coli has been predicted using Chou-Fasman model. The enzyme protein contains 28% α-helix, 27% β-pleated sheets and 20% reverse β-turns. The secondary structure predicted 4 regions showing Rossman-fold super secondary structure. Two regions, one from residue 268–361 and the another from residue 606–684, having 4 consecutive strands of parallel β-pleated sheets and 3 joining α-helix, are predicted. Two regions, one from residue 379–434 and the another from residue 496–573, having 3 consecutive strands of parallel β-pleated sheets and two joining α-helix, are predicted.

    • Genome analysis of amaranths: Determination of inter- and intra-species variations

      S A Ranade Anil Kumar Mamta Goswami Nuzhat Farooqui P V Sane

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      Amaranths are an important group of plants and include grain, vegetable and ornamental types. Despite the economic importance of the amaranths, there is very little information available about the extent and nature of genetic diversity present in the genusAmaranthusat molecular level. We now report the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles of different species ofAmaranthusas well as different accessions of the species. These RAPD analyses have been carried out using 65 arbitrary sequence decamer primers. From the RAPD data, an UPGMA dendrogram illustrating the inter-as well as intra-species relationships has been computed. The putative hybrid origin of A.dubiousfromA. hybridusandA. spinosusis also ruled out by the RAPD data. The trends of species relationships amongst the amaranths determined by RAPDs is consistent with their cytogenetic and evolutionary relationships that have already been determined.

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    • Vocal signals in a tropical avian species, the redvented bulbulPycnonotus cafer: their characteristics and importance

      Anil Kumar Dinesh Bhatt

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      Acoustic signals play an important role in the lives of birds. Almost all avian species produce vocal signals in a variety of contexts either in the form of calls or songs or both. In the present study different types of vocal signals of the tropical avian speciesPycnonotus cafer were characterized on the basis of their physical characteristics and context of production. This species used six types of vocal signals: contact signals, roosting signals, alarm signals, twittering signals, distress signals and begging signals. Two types of alarm signals are produced based on predation pressure. These signals are dissimilar in all physical characteristics except for dominant frequency. Although alarm signal type I and roosting signals are phonetically similar, they have completely different sonogram characteristics.

    • Dibutyryl c-AMP as an inducer of sporidia formation: Biochemical and antigenic changes during morphological differentiation of Karnal bunt (Tilletia indica) pathogen in axenic culture

      Anil Kumar Kaushlendra Tripathi Manish Rana Shalini Purwar G K Garg

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      Effect of dibutyryl adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (dbc-AMP), an analogue of c-AMP, was investigated on growth and morphological differentiation ofTilletia indica. Exponential growth was observed up to 21 days in both presence and absence of dbc-AMP; however, increasing concentration of dbc-AMP was deleterious to mycelial growth in liquid culture. A slow increase of mycelial biomass up to 21 days and decline at 30 days in the presence of 2.5 mM dbc-AMP was observed, therefore, this concentration was chosen in subsequent investigations. The inhibitory influence of dbc-AMP was further substantiated by decrease in soluble protein. The fungus on exposure to dbc-AMP experienced morphological differentiation from vegetative mycelial phase to sporogenous mycelial phase, and was induced to produce filiform sporidia. Use of quantitative ELISA further suggested that sporidia formation took more than 21 days in the presence of dbc-AMP. Variations of proteins during different stages ofT. indica grown in the presence and absence of dbc-AMP suggested the expression of stage-specific proteins or differential expression of proteins induced by dbc-AMP. The changes in expression of cell surface antigens as evidenced from decrease and increase binding of anti-mycelial and anti-sporidial antibodies in dbc-AMP treated culture by ELISA was further interpreted on the basis of morphological differentiation from mycelial to sporidial phase

    • Influence of jasmonic acid as potential activator of induced resistance against Karnal bunt in developing spikes of wheat

      Mihir K Mandal Dinesh Pandey Shalini Purwar U S Singh Anil Kumar

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      Induction of defense response against Karnal bunt (KB) by suppressing the pathogenesis was observed upon exogenous application of jasmonic acid (JA) as evident from decrease in the coefficient of infection and overall response value in both susceptible and resistant varieties of wheat. The ultra-structural changes during disease progression showed the signs of programmed cell death (PCD). However, JA strengthened the defense barrier by enhancing the lignifications of cell walls as observed in spikes of both varieties by histochemical analysis. Compared to the plants inoculated with pathogen alone, plants of resistant line (RJP) first treated with JA followed by inoculation with pathogen showed more lignifications and extracellular deposition of other metabolites on cells, which is supposed to prevent mycelial invasions. Contrary to this, susceptible (SJP) lines also showed lignifications but the invasion was more compared to resistant line. Induction of protease activity was higher in resistant variety than its corresponding susceptible variety. The protease activity induced during the colonization of the pathogen and its proliferation inside the host system gets inhibited by JA treatment as demonstrated by the quantitative and in-gel protease assay. The results indicate the role of JA signalling in inhibiting the proteases due to expression of certain protease inhibitor genes. SDS-PAGE analysis shows differential gene expression through induction and/or suppression of different proteins in wheat spikes of resistant and susceptible varieties under the influence of JA. Thus, exogenously applied JA provides the conditioning effect prior to the challenge of infection and induces defense against KB probably by maintaining a critical balance between proteases and protease inhibitors and/or coordinating induction of different families of new proteins.

    • Proteomic analysis of heparin-binding proteins from human seminal plasma: a step towards identification of molecular markers of male fertility

      Vijay Kumar Md Imtaiyaz Hassan Anil Kumar Tomar Tara Kashav Jaya Nautiyal Sarman Singh Tej P Singh Savita Yadav

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      Glycosaminoglycans, especially heparin, are involved in various cell processes such as apoptosis, cell cycle control, platelet activation, capacitation, acrosome reaction and sperm decondensation. Heparin-binding proteins (HBPs) are essential constituents of human seminal fluid, which bind to sperm lipids containing the phosphorylcholine group and mediate the fertilization process. We utilized a proteomic set-up consisting of affinity chromatography, isoelectric focusing (IEF) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/MS) for protein analysis of human HBPs. We resolved 70 different spots on two-dimensional (2-D) gel and subsequently identified these proteins. Forty different types of proteins were identified. Functional analysis revealed that 38% of the proteins belonged to the enzyme category, 20% were involved in RNA processing and transcription, 18% in structure and transport function, and 16% in cell recognition and signal transduction. We also identified 8% of proteins with unknown functions, although their expression in seminal fluid has been documented. Proteins of seminal fluid that bind heparin may be directly involved in sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction (AR), which are the two critical steps for fertilization. This information on HBPs would be useful for identifying potential biomarkers of fertility in the near future.

    • IL-3 inhibits rat osteoclast differentiation induced by TNF-$\alpha$ and other pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines


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      IL-3, a haematopoiesis regulatory factor, has previously been shown to inhibit both mouse and humanosteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Here, the role of rat IL-3 on rat osteoclast differentiation was evaluated to address whether the inhibitory action of IL-3 on osteoclastogenesis is conserved in variousspecies. It was observed that IL-3 inhibited rat osteoclast differentiation induced by both TNF-$\alpha$ and receptoractivator of NF-$\kappa$B ligand (RANKL). TNF-$\alpha$ is known to induce bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporoticwomen and it also synergise with many pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines to cause huge pathological bone loss.Importantly, it was found that rat IL-3 inhibits the synergistic action of TNF-$\alpha$ with RANKL and IL-1$\beta$, TGF$\beta$1and TGF-$\beta$3. IL-3 downregulates the TNF-$\alpha$-induced nuclear translocation of NF-$\kappa$B-p65 and c-fos withoutaffecting c-jun. Interestingly, we observed that IL-3 also inhibits osteoclast differentiation in vivo in rats induced by TNF-$\alpha$. All these results suggest that inhibitory action of IL-3 on osteoclastogenesis is conserved invarious species including mice, rats and humans. Thus, our results clearly indicate that IL-3 has therapeuticpotential to treat pathological bone loss in important skeletal diseases.

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