• A P Dash

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • On the conspecificity ofAnopheles fluviatilis species S withAnopheles minimus species C

      O P Singh D Chandra N Nanda S K Sharma Pe Than Htun T Adak S K Subbarao A P Dash

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      Anopheles fluviatilis andAn. minimus complexes, each comprising of at least three sibling species, are closely related and important malaria vectors in Oriental Region. RecentlyAn. fluviatilis species S, which is a highly efficient malaria vector in India, has been made conspecific withAn. minimus species C (senior synonym) on the basis of homology in 335 base pair nucleotide sequence of D3 domain of 28S ribosomal DNA(rDNA). We examined the conspecificity of these two nominal species by obtaining and analysing the DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal loci internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and D2-D3 domain of 28S rDNA (28S-D2/D3) from those ofAn. fluviatilis S andAn. minimus C. We found that the sequences ofAn. fluviatilis S are appreciably different from those ofAn. minimus C with pair-wise distance (Kimura-2-parametre model) of 3.6 and 0.7% for loci ITS2 and 28S-D2/D3, respectively. Pair-wise distance and phylogenetic analyses using ITS2 sequences of members of Minimus and Fluviatilis Complexes revealedthat An. fluviatilis S is distantly related toAn. minimus C as compared to any other members of the Fluviatilis Complex. These findings suggest that the two nominal species,An. fluviatilis S andAn. minimus C, do not merit synonymy. The study also confirms that the reported speciesAn. fluviatilis X is synonym with species S.

    • Malaria in India: Challenges and opportunities

      A P Dash Neena Valecha A R Anvikar A Kumar

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      India contributes about 70% of malaria in the South East Asian Region of WHO. Although annually India reports about two million cases and 1000 deaths attributable to malaria, there is an increasing trend in the proportion of Plasmodium falciparum as the agent. There exists heterogeneity and variability in the risk of malaria transmission between and within the states of the country as many ecotypes/paradigms of malaria have been recognized. The pattern of clinical presentation of severe malaria has also changed and while multi-organ failure is more frequently observed in falciparum malaria, there are reports of vivax malaria presenting with severe manifestations. The high burden populations are ethnic tribes living in the forested pockets of the states like Orissa, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and the North Eastern states which contribute bulk of morbidity and mortality due to malaria in the country. Drug resistance, insecticide resistance, lack of knowledge of actual disease burden along with new paradigms of malaria pose a challenge for malaria control in the country. Considering the existing gaps in reported and estimated morbidity and mortality, need for estimation of true burden of malaria has been stressed. Administrative, financial, technical and operational challenges faced by the national programme have been elucidated. Approaches and priorities that may be helpful in tackling serious issues confronting malaria programme have been outlined.

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