Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science
Volume 24 Issue 6 December 2001 pp 639-642 Alloys and Steels
The interface of Fe3Al/Q235 dissimilar materials joint, which was made by vacuum diffusion welding, combines excellently. There are Fe3Al, FeAl phases and 𝛼-Fe (Al) solid solution at the interface of Fe3Al/Q235. Aluminum content decreases from 28% to 1.5% and corresponding phase changes from Fe3Al with DO3 type body centred cubic (
Volume 25 Issue 3 June 2002 pp 213-217 Alloys and Steels
Under the condition of tungsten inert gas shielded welding (TIG) + shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) technology, the microstructure in the welding zone of 9Cr–1Mo–V–Nb (P91) heat-resisting steel is studied by means of X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The test results indicate that when the weld heat input (𝐸) of TIG is 8.5 ∼ 11.7 kJ/cm and the weld heat input of SMAW is 13.3 ∼ 21.0 kJ/cm, the microstructure in the weld metal is composed of austenite and a little amount of 𝛿 ferrite. The substructure of austenite is crypto–crystal martensite, which included angle. There are some spot precipitates in the martensite base. TEM analysis indicates that the fine structure in the heat-affected zone is lath martensite. There are some carbides (lattice constant, 1.064 nm) at the boundary of grain as well as inside the grain, most of which are Cr23C6 and a little amount of (Fe, Me)23C6.
Volume 25 Issue 5 October 2002 pp 361-366 Alloys and Steels
Microstructure, precipitates and fracture morphology in the coarse grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) of a new high-purity 0Cr18Mo2Ti ferritic stainless steel were studied by means of optical metallography, SEM, TEM, X-ray diffractometer, etc. Experimental results indicated that grain coarsening resulted in brittle fracture in the CGHAZ of 0Cr18Mo2Ti steel. The reduction of impact toughness in the CGHAZ due to change of cooling rate can be attributed to the increase of nitrides (TiN, Cr2N, etc). These nitrides in the CGHAZ promote initiation and propagation of brittle cracks. The precipitated Cr2N nitrides in the grain boundaries decrease impact toughness in the CGHAZ of 0Cr18Mo2Ti steel by promoting crack initiation. In practical applications, the welding heat input (𝐸) should be as low as possible to prevent toughness reduction in the CGHAZ.
Volume 25 Issue 5 October 2002 pp 367-370 Alloys and Steels
The chemical composition of the second phase precipitation in the vacuum diffusion-bonded zone of Fe3Al intermetallic compound and Q235 carbon steel was analysed by means of electron probe microanalyser (EPMA). The relative content of the second phase precipitation and grain size was evaluated through a micro-image analyser. The percentage of Fe and Al content in the diffusion zone was measured by EPMA. The results indicated that the relative content of the second phase precipitation rich in carbon and chromium at the Fe3Al/Q235 interface was much higher. With the transition from Fe3Al intermetallic compound to Q235 carbon steel across Fe3Al/Q235 interface, the grain diameter decreased from 250 𝜇m to 112 𝜇m, Al atom content decreased from 27% to 15%, while Fe atom content increased from 76% to 96%.
Volume 25 Issue 7 December 2002 pp 635-639 Alloys and Steels
The fine structure in the Fe–Al alloy layer of a new hot dip aluminized steel (HDA) was examined by means of X-ray diffractometry (XRD), electron diffraction technique, etc. The test results indicated that the Fe–Al alloy layer of the new aluminized steel mainly composed of Fe3Al, FeAl and 𝛼-Fe (Al) solid solution. There was no brittle phase containing higher aluminum content, such as FeAl3 (59.18% Al) and Fe2Al7 (62.93% Al). The tiny cracks and embrittlement, formerly caused by these brittle phases in the conventional aluminum-coated steel, were effectively eliminated. There was no microscopic defect (such as tiny cracks, pores or loose layer) in the coating. This is favourable to resist high temperature oxidation and corrosion of the aluminized steel.
Volume 26 Issue 2 February 2003 pp 273-278 Alloys and Steels
The microstructure in the inter-critical heat-affected zone (ICHAZ) of HQ130 steel, has been investigated by thermo-simulation test, SEM and TEM. The problem of toughness decrease in the ICHAZ (𝑇p = 800°C) as well as the effect of M–A constituent and carbide precipitation on brittleness was analysed. The test results indicated that the microstructure in the ICHAZ of HQ130 steel was mostly a mixture of lath martensite (ML) and granular bainite (Bg) with a fine but nonuniform grain structure. The cause of brittleness in the ICHAZ was related to production of the M–A constituent in the local region and carbide precipitation. By controlling the welding heat input carbide precipitation and the formation of the M–A constituent can be avoided or decreased.
Volume 26 Issue 3 April 2003 pp 295-299 Alloys and Steels
Microstructural characterization of the weld metals of HQ130 + QJ63 high strength steels, welded under 80% Ar + 20% CO2 gas shielded metal arc welding and different weld heat inputs, was carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The relative contents of acicular ferrite (AF) and pro-eutectic ferrites (PF) in the weld metals were evaluated by means of XQF-2000 micro-image analyser. The experimental results indicate that there is acicular ferrite in the grain and some pro-eutectic ferrite on the boundary of original austenite grains when the weld heat input is small (𝐸 = 9.6 kJ/cm), but the main microstructure is ferrite side plate (FSP) when the heat input is larger (𝐸 = 22.3 kJ/cm). So the weld heat input should be strictly controlled in the range 10 ∼ 20 kJ/cm and then the content of pro-eutectic ferrite is limited to $\lt$ 25%. Thus weld metals of HQ130 + QJ63 high strength steels with high toughness and excellent resistance to cracking can be ensured.
Volume 26 Issue 3 April 2003 pp 301-305 Alloys and Steels
Fracture morphology and fine structure in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of HQ130 super-high strength steel are studied by means of SEM, TEM and electron diffraction technique. Test results indicated that the structure of HAZ of HQ130 steel was mainly lath martensite (ML), in which there were a lot of dislocations in the sub-structure inside ML lath, the dislocation density was about (0.3 ∼ 0.9) × 1012/cm2. No obvious twin was observed in the HAZ under the condition of normal weld heat input. By controlling weld heat input ($E \leq$ 20 kJ/cm), the impact toughness in the HAZ can be assured.
Volume 27 Issue 2 April 2004 pp 127-132 Alloys and Steels
The distribution of the residual stress in the weld joint of HQ130 grade high strength steel was investigated by means of finite element method (FEM) using ANSYS software. Welding was carried out using gas shielded arc welding with a heat input of 16 kJ/cm. The FEM analysis on the weld joint reveals that there is a stress gradient around the fusion zone of weld joint. The instantaneous residual stress on the weld surface goes up to 800 ∼ 1000 MPa and it is 500 ∼ 600 MPa, below the weld. The stress gradient near the fusion zone is higher than any other location in the surrounding area. This is attributed as one of the significant reasons for the development of cold cracks at the fusion zone in the high strength steel. In order to avoid such welding cracks, the thermal stress in the weld joint has to be minimized by controlling the weld heat input.
Volume 28 Issue 1 February 2005 pp 63-67 Alloys and Steels
Microstructure at the diffusion bonding interface between Fe3Al and steel including Q235 low carbon steel and Cr18–Ni8 stainless steel was analysed and compared by means of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The effect of Cr and Ni on microstructure at the Fe3Al/steel diffusion bonding interface was discussed. The experimental results indicate that it is favourable for the diffusion of Cr and Ni at the interface to accelerate combination of Fe3Al and steel during bonding. Therefore, the width of Fe3Al/Cr18–Ni8 interface transition zone is more than that of Fe3Al/Q235. And Fe3Al dislocation couples with different distances, even dislocation net occurs at the Fe3Al/Cr18–Ni8 interface because of the dispersive distribution of Cr and Ni in Fe3Al phase.
Volume 28 Issue 1 February 2005 pp 69-74 Alloys and Steels
The distribution of elements near the Fe3Al/Q235 diffusion bonding interface was computed by the diffusion equation as well as measured by means of EPMA. The results indicated close agreement between the two for iron and aluminium. Diffusion coefficient in the interface transition zone is larger than that in the Fe3Al and Q235 steel at the same temperature, which is favourable to elemental diffusion. The diffusion distance near the Fe3Al/Q235 interface increased with increasing heating temperature, 𝑇, and the holding time, 𝑡. The relation between the width of the interface transition zone, 𝑥, and the holding time, 𝑡, conformed to parabolic growth law: 𝑥2 = 4.8 × 104 exp(– 133/RT) (𝑡 – 𝑡0). The width of the interface transition zone does not increase significantly for holding times beyond 60 min.
Volume 29 Issue 2 April 2006 pp 155-158 Alloys
Ceramic matrix composite, TiC–Al2O3, and stainless steel, Cr18–Ni8, were joined at 1400 K by solid state diffusion bonding, making use of a Ti foil acting as thermal stress relief interlayer. The microstructure of the joint was thus formed. The diffusion bonded TiC–Al2O3/Cr18–Ni8 joint was investigated by a variety of characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that Ti foil is fully fused to react with elements from substrates and Ti3Al, TiC and 𝛼-Ti are formed in the diffusion bonded TiC–Al2O3/Cr18–Ni8 joint. The interfacial shear strength is up to 99 MPa and the shear fracture occurs close to the ceramic matrix composite due to the application of Ti foil acting as thermal stress relief interlayer.
Volume 30 Issue 4 August 2007 pp 415-419 Alloys and Steels
Joining of composite, Al2O3–TiC, with heat-resistant 9Cr1MoV steel, was carried out by diffusion brazing technology, using a combination of Ti, Cu and Ti as multi-interlayer. The interfacial strength was measured by shear testing and the result was explained by the fracture morphology. Microstructural characterization of the Al2O3–TiC/9Cr1MoV joint was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy-dispersion spectroscopy (EDS). The results indicate that a Al2O3–TiC/9Cr1MoV joint with a shear strength of 122 MPa can be obtained by controlling heating temperature at 1130°C for 60 min with a pressure of 12 MPa. Multi-interlayer Ti/Cu/Ti was fused fully and diffusion occurred to produce interfacial layer between Al2O3–TiC and 9Cr1MoV steel. The total thickness of the interfacial layer is about 100 𝜇m and Ti3AlC2, TiC, Cu and Fe2Ti are found to occur in the interface layer.
Volume 34 Issue 1 February 2011 pp 161-167
Q550 high strength steel was welded using gas shielded arc welding and three different welding wires without pre- or post-heat treatments. The paper investigates the influence of welding wire on the microstructure, tensile strength and impact toughness of Q550 steel weld joints. Results showed that the microstructure of the weld metal of joints produced using ER50-6 wire was a mixture of acicular ferrite and grain boundary ferrite including pro-eutectoid ferrite and ferrite side plate. Acicular ferrite was mainly obtained in the weld metal of the joints produced using MK.G60-1 wire. Pro-eutectoid ferrite was present along the boundary of prior austenite. Crack initiation occurred easily at pro-eutectoid ferrite when the joint was subjected to tensile. Tensile strength and impact toughness were promoted with increasing acicular ferrite. Tensile strength of the joint fabricated using MK.G60-1 wire was close to that of base metal. And tensile samples fractured at location of the fusion zone, which had lower toughness and thus became the weak region in the joint. Impact absorbing energy was the highest in the heat affected zone. Fibrous region in fracture surfaces of impact specimens was characterized as transgranular fracture with the mechanism of micro-void coalescence. Acicular ferrite microstructure region corresponded to relatively large dimples while boundary ferrite microstructure corresponded to small dimples.
Volume 42 | Issue 2