T R Ramachandran
Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science
Volume 6 Issue 3 July 1984 pp 513-535
X-ray microanalysis and electron energy loss spectroscopy of thin foils constitute the important techniques of high resolution chemical analysis using the electron microscope. The technique of x-ray microanalysis is discussed in this paper with particular emphasis on the study of aluminium alloys using a dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope (
The principle of determining chemical composition from observed x-ray peak intensities including the absorption of x-rays and beam broadening in thin foils are considered. The accuracy of peak intensity measurement and detection limits in x-ray microanalysis are illustrated with reference to Al-Mn alloys. The Cliff-Lorimer (
Volume 12 Issue 3-4 September 1989 pp 325-340 International Conference On Recent Advances In Materials And Processes
The addition of lithium to aluminium reduces the density and increases the elastic modulus; precipitation of the metastable
Volume 19 Issue 6 December 1996 pp 905-920 Papers Presented At The Materials Science Section Of The 82nd Indian Science Congress, Calcutta, 1995
For well over a century the Bayer process for the production of alumina from bauxite and the Hall-Heroult process involving the electrolysis of alumina dissolved in cryolite to produce aluminium have been commercially exploited. However, significant advances based on intense research and development activities in the last five decades have led to considerable improvements in operating parameters and productivity, efficient disposal and utilization of wastes. This review presents the developments that have taken place in technology, equipment and treatment of wastes in both the alumina and aluminium production processes.
Technology and equipment developments in the field of alumina are concerned with usage of different qualities of bauxite, improvement in extraction efficiency of alumina from bauxite, obtaining better yield during precipitation, enhancing scale of operation and minimizing soda losses in the process. Improvements in electrolysis involve utilization of modified electrolytic baths, controlled feeding of alumina, better design of cell based on mathematical modelling of magnetic field and heat distribution and optimization of the performance of electrodes on the basis of good understanding of physical, mechanical and electrical properties. Information on the present situation in the Indian plants is also presented. Proper treatment and disposal of wastes generated in alumina and aluminium production are of great importance as they contain significant amounts of sodium hydroxide, fluorides, sulphur dioxide, oxides of carbon and cyanide. Some attempts made to utilize the waste material are briefly summarized.
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