• T S Sampath Kumar

      Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Heat-deproteinated xenogeneic bone from slaughterhouse waste: Physico-chemical properties

      R Murugan K Panduranga Rao T S Sampath Kumar

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      Xenogeneic bone procured from the slaughterhouse waste was deproteinated by heat treatment method intended for use as a bone substitute. The effect of heat treatment was investigated by thermal analysis and by physico-chemical methods such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The heat treatment temperatures for the bovine bone samples were predetermined by thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The XRD results revealed that the process of heat treatment promoted the crystallinity of bone samples, particularly at 700 and 900°C. There was no secondary phase transformation detected for heat-deproteinated bone except the presence of the hydroxyapatite (HA) phase, which indicated its phase purity even at a higher temperature. The FTIR spectra of raw bone and bone heated at 300°C indicated the presence of organic macromolecules whereas these disappeared in the samples heated at 500, 700 and 900°C, which suggested the removal of antigenic organic matters around 500°C. The same results were also confirmed quantitatively by calculating the amount of collagen using hydroxyproline estimation. There was no significant change in the TG-thermogram of bone heated at 500, 700 and 900°C, which indicated their thermal stability. These findings implied that the heat treated bone at 500°C had properties similar to carbonated HA with low crystallinity, while 700 and 900°C samples had the same with higher crystallinity. As low temperature treatment does not alter morphological and structural properties, we propose that the 500°C heat treated xenogeneic bone may act as an excellent osteogenic bone substitute.

    • Synthesis of nanocrystalline fluorinated hydroxyapatite by microwave processing and its in vitro dissolution study

      N Rameshbabu T S Sampath Kumar K Prasad Rao

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      Synthetic hydroxyapatite, (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HA), is an important material used for orthopedic and dental implant applications. The biological hydroxyapatite in the human bone and tooth is of nanosize and differs in composition from the stoichiometric HA by the presence of other ions such as carbonate, magnesium, fluoride, etc. Osseointegration is enhanced by using nanocrystalline HA. This stimulates the interest in synthesizing nanocrystalline HA by different routes and among the methods, microwave processing seems to form the fine grain size and uniform characteristic nanocrystalline materials. Fluorinated hydroxyapatite, (FHA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2-𝑥F𝑥), possesses higher corrosion resistance in biofluids than pure HA and reduces the risk of dental caries. The present work deals with the synthesis of nanocrystalline FHAs by microwave processing. The crystal size and morphology of the nanopowders were examined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. The functional groups present in FHA powders were ascertained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR) and laser Raman spectroscopy. Since the physiological stability is an important parameter while selecting the material for implantation, the in vitro dissolution studies of FHAs with different fluorine contents were carried out.

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