T K Bhattacharya
Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science
Volume 26 Issue 7 December 2003 pp 703-706 Cements
The sintering of lime by double calcination process from natural limestone has been conducted with La2O3 and CeO2 additive up to 4 wt.% in the temperature range 1500–1650°C. The results show that the additives enhanced the densification and hydration resistance of sintered lime. Densification is achieved up to 98.5% of the theoretical value with La2O3 and CeO2 addition in lime. Grain growth is substantial when additives are incorporated in lime. The grain size of sintered CaO (1600°C) with 4 wt.% La2O3 addition is 82 𝜇m and that for CeO2 addition is 50 𝜇m. The grains of sintered CaO in presence of additive are angular with pores distributed throughout the matrix. EDX analysis shows that the solid solubility of La2O3 and CeO2 in CaO grain is 2.9 and 1.7 weight %, respectively. The cell dimension of CaO lattice is 4.803 Å. This value decreases with incorporation of La2O3 and CeO2. The better hydration resistance of La2O3 added sintered lime compared to that of CeO2 added one, is related to the bigger grain size of the lime in former case.
Volume 31 Issue 4 August 2008 pp 673-680 Polymers
Antireflection coatings (ARCs) are deposited on the surfaces of optical elements like spectacle lenses to increase light transmission and improve their performance. In the ophthalmic industry, plastic lenses are rapidly displacing glass lenses due to several advantageous features. However, the deposition of ARCs on plastic lenses is a challenging task, because the plastic surface needs treatment for adhesion improvement and surface hardening before depositing the ARC. This surface treatment is usually done in a multi-stage process—exposure to energetic radiations, followed by deposition of a carbonyl hard coating by spin or dip coating processes, UV curing, etc. However, this treatment can also be done by plasma processes. Moreover, the plasma polymerization process allows deposition of optical films at room temperature, essential for plastics. The energetic ions in plasma processes provide similar effects as in ion assisted physical deposition processes to produce hard coatings, without requiring sophisticated ion sources. The plasma polymerization process is more economical than ion-assisted physical vapour deposition processes as regards equipment and source materials and is more cost-effective, enabling the surface treatment and deposition of the ARC in the same deposition system in a single run by varying the system parameters at each step. Since published results of the plasma polymerization processes developed abroad are rather sketchy and the techniques are mostly veiled in commercial secrecy, innovative and indigenous plasma-based techniques have been developed in this work for depositing the complete ARCs on plastic substrates.
Volume 31 Issue 7 December 2008 pp 995-999 Clays
The effect of bauxite addition on the densification and mullitization of reaction sintered bauxite–clay mixture had been studied in the temperature range 1400–1500°C. The maximum bulk density (2.89 g/cc) and minimum apparent porosity (0.58%) was achieved by addition of 50 wt% bauxite. The impurities present in bauxite and clay formed liquid phase which helped in particle diffusion to aid densification. The X-ray diffraction of sample fired at 1500°C showed cristoballite phase gradually disappearing and at the same time mullite and 𝛼-Al2O3 phase appearing at a higher level of bauxite addition. The in situ nascent alumina formed was reactive that facilitated the formation of secondary mullite by solution precipitation mechanism. The presence of bauxite also changed the morphology of the mullite particles. Two types of mullite were distinctly observed in the SEM photographs: elongated primary mullite and equiaxed secondary mullite.
Volume 42 | Issue 3