Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science
Volume 17 Issue 6 November 1994 pp 1155-1166
New galvanic cell designs, incorporating one or two buffer electrodes, are developed to minimize the electrode polarization caused by electrochemical permeability of the electrolyte at high temperature. When a nonpolarizable reference electrode is employed, a cell with three-electrode compartments can be used to measure the chemical potential of oxygen in two-phase fields of ternary systems, associated with one degree of freedom at constant temperature. A buffer electrode is placed between the reference and measuring electrodes. The buffer electrode, maintained at approximately the same oxygen chemical potential as the measuring electrode, absorbs the semipermeability flux of oxygen between reference and measuring electrodes.
When the reference electrode is polarizable, two buffer electrodes are required between the reference and measuring electrodes. The reference and reference-buffer electrodes have the same chemical potential of the active species. Similarly the measuring electrode and its buffer are of approximately the same chemical potential. A significant chemical potential difference exists only between the two buffers, which may become polarized due to coupled transport of ions and electronic defects through the electrolyte. Since the reference and measuring electrodes are insulated, the emf of the solid state cell is unaffected. The use of the buffer electrode designs permit more accurate thermodynamic measurements on metal and ceramic systems at high temperature.
Volume 25 Issue 5 October 2002 pp 391-398 Thin Films
Equilibrium concentrations of various condensed and gaseous phases have been thermodynamically calculated, using the free energy minimization criterion, for the metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) of copper films using
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