• S Ranganathan

      Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Production and characterisation of amorphous alloys at varanasi

      P Ramachandrarao S Ranganathan T R Anantharaman

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      Amorphous alloys, more commonly referred to as metallic glasses, represent a striking advance in inorganic materials technology of recent times. While the probable atomic arrangements in noncrystalline alloys have aroused scientific curiosity, their unusual mechanical strength, attractive magnetic properties and remarkable corrosion resistance have excited technological interest. This report describes the progress of research at Varanasi on the following aspects: adaptation, innovation and development of techniques for rapid solidification, study and refinement of structural models, calculation of thermodynamic quantities, evaluation of strength and corrosion resistance and studies of glass to crystal transition.

    • Grain boundary-dislocation interactions

      S Ranganathan

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      Our current understanding of the structure of grain boundaries will be described first. The structure of low angle boundaries can be rigorously described in terms of arrays of dislocations. The structure of high angle boundaries continues to defy a complete and rigorous description. A model has been developed based on coincidence site lattices. This model postulates the presence of grain boundary dislocations even at high angles of misorientation to accommodate the deviation from exact coincidence conditions. The Burgers vectors of such grain boundary dislocations can be found by the translation vectors of thedsc lattice. An interesting point is that the Burgers vectors are not lattice translations. Hence the dislocations are confined to the surface of the boundary and cannot move into the grain. Alternative descriptions of the structure of grain boundaries make appeal to the Bernal type of polyhedral voids that occur in metallic glasses. A brief discussion of the strength of this approach will be outlined. Dislocations at grain boundaries can affect both grain boundary migration and sliding. The possible mechanisms for these phenomena will be described. The importance of understanding these mechanisms to explain deformation of metals at high temperatures will be stressed.

    • Effect of texture and grain size on the mechanical properties of warm-worked cadmium, zinc and zinc-0·35% aluminium alloy

      K Ratnaji Rao S Ranganathan D H Sastry

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      Changes in the grain size and crystallographic texture during warm working and their influence on the room temperature mechanical properties are investigated on Cd, Zn and a Zn-Al alloy. The yield strength increase in the early stages of working in extruded cadmium is accounted for based on the development of a basal texture while in rolled zinc and zinc alloy, the properties are affected more by the grain size. Cadmium exhibits ductile fracture at all extrusion ratios whereas the fracture mode in zinc and the alloy changes from cleavage at small rolling strains to ductile at higher deformation strains.

    • Alloy oxide equilibria in the Cr-Mn-O system

      S Ranganathan J P Hajra

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      The phase boundaries of the Cr-Mn-O system have been investigated by alloy-oxide equilibria at 1173 and 1273 K and by isopiestic technique at 1323 K. The oxide phases which coexist in equilibrium with the Cr-Mn alloys are determined by x-ray diffraction studies. The results of the experiments indicate the presence of MnO in equilibrium with Mn-rich alloy whereas MnCr2O4 and Cr2O3 phases coexist with almost pure Cr. A three-phase equilibrium consisting of MnCr2O4 and MnO phases has been detected at the alloy composition XMn=0·252 at 1323 K. The composition of the alloy delineates the phase boundaries in the isothermal sections of the system. The results are interpreted by thermodynamic analysis of the Cr-Mn-O system using the data from the isopiestic measurements and those available in the literature.

    • Crystallization behaviour of Metglas 2826 MB (Fe40Ni38Mo4B18)

      V S Raja Kishore S Ranganathan

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      Differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy have been employed to determine the thermal stability and identify the crystalline phases on devitrification of Metglas 2826 MB. The glass crystallizes intoγ-FeNiMo and fcc (FeNi)23B6 with activation energies of 270 and 375 kJ mol−1 respectively. The reactions are primary and polymorphic in nature. The influence of Mo towards crystallization of Fe40Ni40B20 has been to enhance the formation of the fcc (FeNi)23B6 phase in preference to orthorhombic (FeNi)3B phase and to raise the thermal stability of the amorphous state.

    • Foreword

      P Rama Rao K J Rao P Ramachandrarao S Ranganathan

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    • Foreword

      P Rama Rao K J Rao S Ranganathan A D Damodaran

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    • An electron diffraction study of quasicrystals in Ti-37 at% Mn and Ti-24 at% Mn-13 at% Fe alloys

      T A Bhaskaran R V Krishnan S Ranganathan

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      Electron diffraction studies were carried out to establish the icosahedral phase formation in rapidly quenched Ti-37 at% Mn and Ti-24 at% Mn-13 at% Fe alloys. Distortions in the diffraction spots and diffuse intensities in the diffraction patterns were investigated. The existence of a rational approximant structure and a decagonal like phase are also reported.

    • Foreword

      P Rama Rao K J Rao S L N Acharyulu Y R Mahajan S V Suryanarayana S Ranganathan

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    • Ordering transformation in icosahedral quasicrystals and related crystalline phases

      N K Mukhopadhyay K Chattopadhyay S Ranganathan

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      Arcs of diffuse intensity appear in various shapes and positions in the diffraction patterns from the icosahedral phase, violating the parity rule for simple icosahedral (SI) symmetry. In the process of annealing treatment, the diffuse spots also evolve in the centre of the arcs and become sharp. These extra diffuse spots change the symmetry of the quasilattice fromP-type toF-type. The ordered and disordered structures in quasicrystal have been linked to the ordered and disordered structures present in the crystalline α (Al-Mn-Si) and α (Al-Fe-Si) alloys.

    • Studies of interfaces in Al65Cu20Fe15

      R Divakar D Sundararaman S Ranganathan

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      The study of interfaces in quasicrystalline alloys is relatively new. Apart from the change in orientation, symmetry and chemistry which can occur across homophase and heterophase boundaries in crystalline materials, we have the additional, exciting possibility of an interface between quasicrystalline and its rational approximant. High resolution electron microscopy is a powerful technique to study the structural details of such interfaces. We report the results of a HREM study of the interface between the icosahedral phase and the related Al13Fe4 type monoclinic phase in melt spun and annealed Al65Cu20Fe15 alloy.

    • Distribution of lead in lead-containing aluminium alloys obtained by liquid phase co-spray forming technique

      Yu Fuxiao E S Dwarakadasa S Ranganathan

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      Liquid phase co-spray forming (LPCSF) technique was employed to produce Al-Pb and Al-Si-Pb alloys to show that it is possible, using this technique, to distribute lead into very fine-sized particles in Al/Al alloy matrix at low melt temperatures. Microstructural studies were carried out to explore the mechanisms governing lead distribution in the matrix of the alloys during processing. Results showed that, regardless of the alloy compositions and experimental conditions, the microstructures of the preforms exhibited great similarity, i.e. less uniform distribution of Pb particles in the base region, and uniform distribution of fine Pb particles in the equiaxed region. During LPCSF process, the behaviour of Pb droplets was similar to that of ceramic particles, except that the shape and size of liquid Pb phase varied corresponding to local solidification condition.

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