Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Investigation on microstructure and dielectric behaviour of (Ba0.999−𝑥Gd0.001Cr𝑥)TiO3 ceramics

      Shivanand Madolappa Raghavendra Sagar Nagbasavanna Sharanappa R L Raibagkar

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      Ceramics of BaTiO3 co-doped with Gd and Cr at Ba-site was synthesized via solid-state reaction route. Surface morphology shows the increase in grain size with the increase of Cr-content below 3 mol%. The high value of 𝜀 in the synthesized samples is associated with space charge polarization and inhomogeneous dielectric structure. Gd is diffused well into the most of Ba sites and vacancies leaving very few defects or voids for the generation of absorption current which results in dielectric loss. Below 3 mol% of Cr-concentration, dissipation factor was improved. Increase in a.c. conductivity with rise of temperature is due to increase in thermally activated electron drift mobility of charges according to the hopping conduction mechanism. Moreover, samples show the positive temperature coefficient of conductivity, which is most desirable for developing highly sensitive thermal detectors and sensors. Also, higher frequency indicates motion of charges in the ceramic samples.

    • Magnetic and ferroelectric characteristics of Gd$^{3+}$ and Ti$^{4+}$ co-doped BiFeO$_3$ ceramics


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      Polycrystalline BiFeO3 and Bi$_{0.9}$Gd$_{0.1}$Fe$_{1−x}$Ti$_x$O$_3$ ($x = 0$, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1) samples were synthesized by solid-state reaction route. Structural, magnetic and ferroelectric properties of these samples were investigated. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) results confirmed the presence of a significant amount of Bi$_2$Fe$_4$O$_9$ impurity phase in the undoped BiFeO$_3$ sample. Mössbauer spectroscopy studies corroborated the XRD studies to confirm the presence of impurity phase.We have observed that gadolinium (Gd$^{3+}$) and titanium (Ti$^{4+}$) doping, respectively, on Bi$^{3+}$ and Fe$^{3+}$ sites facilitated a significant reduction in the impurity phase formation in BiFeO$_3$. Interestingly, Gd$^{3+}$-doping significantly reduced the impurity phase formation as compared to the undoped BiFeO$_3$ sample. This impurity phase formation was further overcome by doping higher ($x \ge 0.05$) amounts of Ti in BiFeO$_3$. The crystallographicsite occupancies of Gd and Ti were confirmed by Rietveld refinement of XRD data,Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. An enhancement in ferromagnetic properties along with moderate ferroelectricproperties have been observed after co-doping. There was an increasing trend in remnant polarization (Pr) with the increase in Ti concentration besides an improvement in the characteristic saturation magnetization. Our resultsdemonstrate that Gd$^{3+}$ and Ti$^{4+}$ doping could be used to enhance multifunctional properties of BiFeO3 ceramics to enable them as potential material for various devices.

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      Prof. Surajit Dhara — School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad
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      Posted on July 25, 2019

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