Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Processing and performance of organic insulators as a gate layer in organic thin film transistors fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate substrate

      Saumen Mandal Monica Katiyar

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      Fabrication of organic thin film transistor (OTFT) on flexible substrates is a challenge, because of its low softening temperature, high roughness and flexible nature. Although several organic dielectrics have been used as gate insulator, it is difficult to choose one in absence of a comparative study covering processing of dielectric layer on polyethylene terephthalate (PET), characterization of dielectric property, pentacene film morphology and OTFT characterization. Here, we present the processing and performance of three organic dielectrics, poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), as a gate layer in pentacene-based organic thin film transistor on PET substrate. We have used thermogravimetric analysis of organic dielectric solution to determine annealing temperature for spin-coated films of these dielectrics. Comparison of the leakage currents for the three dielectrics shows PVA exhibiting lowest leakage (in the voltage range of −30 to +30 V). This is partly because solvent is completely eliminated in the case of PVA as observed by differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTGA). We propose that DTGA can be a useful tool to optimize processing of dielectric layers. From organic thin film transistor point of view, crystal structure, morphology and surface roughness of pentacene film on all the dielectric layers were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).We observe pyramidal pentacene on PVPh whereas commonly observed dendritic pentacene on PMMA and PVA surface. Pentacene morphology development is discussed in terms of surface roughness, surface energy and molecular nature of the dielectric layer.

    • Effect of annealing-temperature-assisted phase evolution on conductivity of solution combustion processed calcium vanadium oxide films


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      In thiswork, the effect of annealing temperature on the conductivity of solution-combustion-synthesized calcium vanadium oxide (CVO) films was studied. Conductivity was tailored by the appearance of the phases like CaVO$_3$, CaV$_2$O$_5$ and Ca$_2$V$_2$O$_7$ as a function of annealing temperature; CaVO$_3$ and CaV$_2$O$_5$ are responsible for high conductivity, whereas V$^{5+}$ presence in Ca$_2$V$_2$O$_7$ contributes towards dielectric nature. Evolution of phases of CVO was identified through X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A detailed conductivity measurement as a function of annealing temperature helps us to identify the decreasing trend of conductivity with increasing temperature up to 400$^{\circ}$C; beyond this it behaves like an insulator. There was a stable conductivity while aging the films in ambient for a few days. This study revealed safe application temperature domain of CVO, and a clear correlation of electrical conductivity with the in-depth structural–compositional–morphological study.

    • A facile, low temperature spray pyrolysed tungsten oxide (WO$_3$): an approach to antifouling coating by amalgamating scratch resistant and water repellent properties


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      In this study, a facile spray pyrolysed hydrophobic robust tungsten oxide (WO$_3$) films were deposited at an annealing temperature of 400$^{\circ}$C on inexpensive glass substrates, using clear and homogeneous precursor solution containing tungsten hexachloride and 2-methoxyethanol. The 10 and 15 times sprayed films were polycrystalline with the monoclinic crystal structure, uniform with the submicron-sized grain morphology (size $\sim$320–420 nm), with an average surface roughness ranging from 12 to 17 nm and transparent above 60% in the visible region with a thickness of 380 and 550 nm, respectively. Elemental existence of tungsten and oxygen was recognized on the surface of the films possessing the highest lattice oxygen percentage of 91.1. Increment in the scratch hardness of the films with the number of sprays compared to uncoated glass was identified. The films were hydrophilic in nature (water contact angle <8$^{\circ}$), converted to hydrophobic (>120$^{\circ}$) by treating chemically with octadecyltrichlorosilane to form a self-assembled monolayer on the top and the hydrophobicity remained same ($\sim$120$^{\circ}$) even after a year. These films with unique and combined properties of scratch hardness and hydrophobicity can serve in the potential application as antifouling coatings.

    • Review on the deposition, structure and properties of high entropy oxide films: current and future perspectives


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      High entropy oxides (HEOs) have captivated significant concentration due to their unique properties. Manipulation of configurational entropy is the main key for extraordinary behaviours, leading to unprecedented material design and innovations. Substantial research has been conducted on HEO bulk systems, but films are still in the cradle stage. Inspired by the ground-breaking results of HEOs, a novel form of films named high entropy oxides films (HEOFs) are being fabricated. The focus in this review is on the fabrication process, structure and properties of HEOFs with attention to their strengths and liabilities. Iconic investigations from recent articles are highlighted. The first overview isprovided on how HEOFs are fabricated and interesting phenomena such as the impact of processing parameters, the role of dopants on the film are discussed. This review also highlights the structural–microstructural appearance and physical properties, concluding with future possibilities and applications.

  • Bulletin of Materials Science | News

    • Dr Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar for Science and Technology

      Posted on October 12, 2020

      Prof. Subi Jacob George — Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bengaluru
      Chemical Sciences 2020

      Prof. Surajit Dhara — School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad
      Physical Sciences 2020

    • Editorial Note on Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on July 25, 2019

      Click here for Editorial Note on CAP Mode

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