• S Panigrahi

      Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Study on electrical properties of Ni-doped SrTiO3 ceramics using impedance spectroscopy

      S K Rout S Panigrahi J Bera

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      The ceramics, SrTiO3 (ST) and 0.4, 0.8 atom% Ni doped SrTiO3, were prepared by solid state reaction route. The average grain size of undoped and doped samples was measured and found to be 1.2, 1.9 and 3.7 𝜇m, respectively. The impedance measurements were conducted at 400–600°C to separate grain and grain boundary contributions. The grain and grain boundaries relaxation frequencies were shifted to higher frequency with temperature. Bulk resistance of doped and undoped ST ceramics was more or less the same. Single grain boundary resistance of doped sample was higher than that of undoped one, indicating that GB resistance increases with acceptor doping. Activation energies were calculated to confirm the same.

    • Relaxor behaviour of (Ba0.5Sr0.5)(Ti0.6Zr0.4)O3 ceramics

      T Badapanda S K Rout S Panigrahi T P Sinha

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      Ba0.5Sr0.5Ti0.6Zr0.4O3 ceramic has been prepared through solid state reaction route. X-ray diffraction shows that the sample has cubic perovskite structure with space group 𝑃𝑚–3𝑚 at room temperature. Temperature dependent dielectric study of the ceramic has been investigated in the frequency range 50 Hz–1 MHz. The density of the sample is determined using Archimedes’ principle and is found to be ∼99% of X-ray density. The dielectric study revealed diffuse phase transition of second order. A broad dielectric anomaly coupled with the shift of dielectric maxima toward a higher temperature with increasing frequency indicates the relaxor-type behaviour in the ceramics. The index of relaxation (𝛾) and the broadening parameter (𝛥) were estimated from a linear fit of the modified Curie–Weiss law. The value of 𝛾 ∼ 1.72 indicates the strong relaxor nature of the ceramic. A remarkably good fit to the Vogel–Fulcher relation further supports such a relaxor nature.

    • Phase transition and dielectric study in Ba0.95Dy0.05TiO3 ceramic

      M R Panigrahi S Panigrahi

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      Temperature and frequency dependence dielectric permittivity of Ba0.95Dy0.05TiO3 ceramic has been studied in the temperature range of 100–350 K at the frequencies, 1 kHz, 10 kHz, 100 kHz and 1 mHz. Diffuse phase transition and frequency dispersion is observed in the permittivity-vs-temperature plots. This has been attributed to the occurrence of relaxor ferroelectric behaviour. The observed relaxor behaviour has been quantitatively characterized based on phenomenological parameters. A comparison with the Zr doped BaTiO3 has also been presented. The microstructure of as-sintered samples shows a dense and almost uniform micrograph without any impurity phases; the grains are almost spherical with random orientation.

    • Mathematical aspects of Rietveld refinement and crystal structure studies on PbTiO3 ceramics

      Niranjan Sahu S Panigrahi

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      The core mathematics, goodness-of-fit parameters of Rietveld refinement technique is introduced for structural analysis of crystalline materials not available as single crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of PbTiO3 compound prepared by following solid-state route, suggests it to be in single crystal form. All the observed peaks could be indexed to $P4mm$ space group with tetragonal symmetry. XRD pattern is analysed by employing Rietveld method. The unit cell parameters are found to be 𝑎 = 𝑏 = 3.8987 (0.0008) Å and 𝑐 = 4.1380 (0.0009) Å. The axial ratio 𝑐/𝑎 and unit cell volume are found to be 1.0614 and 62.896 (0.023) Å3. Bond lengths and angles are calculated using the cell parameters. Using the Rietveld refinement parameters a stable PbTiO3 structure is suggested.

    • Diffuse phase transition, piezoelectric and optical study of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 ceramic

      B Parija T Badapanda V Senthil S K Rout S Panigrahi

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      Bismuth sodium titanate, Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (BNT) is considered to be an excellent candidate for a key material of lead-free dielectric ceramics. In this study, we propose the dielectric and optical study of single phase BNT powder prepared by solid-state reaction route. The phase formation and structural study were done by X-ray diffraction (XRD) which shows well developed crystallite with a pure perovskite phase. The ceramic was sintered at different temperatures from 1050°C to 1175°C to study the effect of sintering temperature on the morphology and density. It was found that the sample sintered at 1150°C shows the highest density. The microstructure of the ceramic was investigated by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) technique. The temperature-dependent dielectric study of the sample sintered at 1150°C was done in the frequency range of 50 kHz–1 MHz which shows a diffuse phase transition. The piezoelectric constant (𝑑33) was found to be 41 pCN-1. The P–E hysteresis loop confirms the ferroelectric behaviour in the ceramic. The UV–Vis spectrum indicated that the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 ceramic has an optical band gap of 2.94 eV.

    • Rietveld analysis, dielectric and impedance behaviour of Mn3+/Fe3+ ionmodified Pb(Zr0.65Ti0.35)O3 perovskite

      Niranjan Sahu S Panigrahi

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      The polycrystalline samples of Pb(Zr0.65−𝑥A𝑥Ti0.35)O3 (A = Mn/Fe), (𝑥 = 0.00, 0.05) (PZM/FT) were synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern was recorded at room temperature and the samples were found in single phase form. All the observed peaks could be indexed to 𝑅3𝑐 space group with rhombohedral symmetry. XRD pattern has been analysed by employing Rietveld method with the help of FullProf Program. The lattice parameters and unit cell volumes decrease from Mn3+ to Fe3+ ion concentrations. The bond lengths and angles have been calculated by using Powder Cell Programme. Microstructural analysis of the surface of the ceramic compound by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) exhibits that there is a significant change in grain size on introduction of Mn3+ and Fe3+ ions at the Zr-site of the compound. It is observed that both the substitutions (Mn3+ and Fe3+) at Zr site induce an increase in dielectric constant and a shift in Curie temperature (𝑇c). From a.c. conductivity analysis, we have estimated the activation energy for both ferroelectric and paraelectric regions. Both the modified samples are obeying Jonscher power law. From Nyquist plots, the activation energy of grain resistance, relaxation time and bulk conductivity are compared. The grain resistance of the material decreases with rise in temperature which indicates a semiconducting behaviour of the material.

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