• S P Singh

      Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Optical absorption and fluorescent behaviour of titanium ions in silicate glasses

      Manoj Kumar Aman Uniyal A P S Chauhan S P Singh

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      Titanium in normal melting conditions in air atmosphere present as Ti4+ ion in basic silicate glasses exhibited an ultra-violet cut-off in silicate glasses, viz. soda–magnesia–silica, soda–magnesia–lime–silica and soda–lime–silica glasses. This indicates that Ti4+ ion can be a good replacement for Ce4+ ion in producing UV-absorbing silicate glasses for commercial applications. The wavelength maxima at which the infinite absorption takes place in glasses was found to be around 310 nm against Ti-free blank glass in UV-region. The mechanism of electronic transition from O2- ligands to Ti4+ ion was suggested as L $\rightarrow$ M charge transfer. The low energy tails of the ultra-violet cut-off were found to obey Urbach’s rule in the optical range 360–500 nm. The fluorescence spectra of these glasses were also studied and based on the radiative fluorescent properties it was suggested that the soda–lime–silica glass containing Ti4+ ion with greater emission crosssection would emit a better fluorescence than the corresponding soda–magnesia–lime–silica and soda–magnesia–silica glasses. The shift of emission wavelengths maxima towards longer wavelength in titania introduced silicate glasses was observed on replacement of MgO by CaO which may be attributed due to an increase in basicity of the glass system.

    • Comparative investigation on the effect of alkaline earth oxides on the intensity of absorption bands due to Cu2+, Mn3+ and Cr3+ ions in ternary silicate glasses

      S P Singh Aman Anal Tarafder

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      Absorption characteristics of Cu2+, Mn3+ and Cr3+ ions in ternary silicate (20Na2O.10RO.70SiO2, where R=Ca, Sr, Ba) glasses were investigated. The intensities of absorption bands due to Cu2+ ion was found to increase with increasing ionic radii of the alkaline earth ions whereas it was found to decrease in case of Mn3+ and Cr3+ ions with increasing ionic radii of the alkaline earth ions. The results were discussed in the light of relation between linear extinction coefficients of these ions and coulombic force of alkaline earth ions. The change in intensities of Cu2+, Mn3+ and Cr3+ ion is attributed due to change in silicate glass compositions.

    • Role of tin as a reducing agent in iron containing heat absorbing soda–magnesia–lime–silica glass

      Aman S P Singh

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      The role of tin as a reducing agent in a 18Na2O.2MgO.8CaO.72SiO2 glass containing a definite amount of total, 𝛴 Fe = [Fe2+] + [Fe3+], was investigated with different concentrations of total tin, 𝛴 Sn = [Sn2+] + [Sn4+], by absorption spectra of iron ions in the optical range 300–1200 nm recorded on a JASCO-7800 spectrophotometer. The single broad absorption band for Fe2+ ion was marked at 1055 nm in the near infrared region and a narrow weak band for Fe3+ ion at its 𝜆max at around 380 nm was observed in the silicate glass. The proportion of ferrous iron was found to increase in the glass in the beginning with the addition of tin up to 0.788% 𝛴 Sn and then it approached a maxima with 1.182% 𝛴 Sn. Further addition of tin was found to be futile for the constant iron concentration of 0.875% for achieving higher [Fe2+]/[Fe3+] ratio for maximum heat absorption due to Fe2+ ion in the glass. The mechanism of the process was discussed on the basis of Sn2+/Sn4+ and Fe2+/Fe3+ mutual redox interaction in the molten glass at 1400°C. The suitable limit of tin was suggested to be 0.788 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 1.182% by wt for 0.875% of total iron for getting maximum ferrous ion in the glass.

    • Bioactivity and mechanical behaviour of cobalt oxide-doped bioactive glass

      Vikash Kumar Vyas Arepalli Sampath Kumar Sunil Prasad S P Singh Ram Pyare

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      Bioactive glasses are materials capable of bonding implants to tissues. 45S5 Bio-glass® is one such material capable of bonding strongly to bone within 6 weeks. It develops a hydroxy-carbonate apatite layer on the implant that is chemically and crystallographically equivalent to the mineral phase of bone. However, it suffers from a mechanical weakness and low fracture toughness due to an amorphous glass network and is not suitable for load-bearing applications. In order to improve its mechanical strength and bioactivity, the present work explores the effects of cobalt oxide additions. Bioactivity of the glass samples was assessed through their hydroxyapatite formation ability by immersing them in the simulated body fluid for different soaking periods. The formation of hydroxyapatite was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, pH measurement and microstructure evaluation through scanning electron microscopy. Densities and mechanical properties of the samples were found to increase considerably with an increase in the concentration of cobalt oxide.

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