• S N Ojha

      Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Microstructural features induced by spray forming of a ternary Pb-Sn-Sb alloy

      V C Srivastava Anish Upadhyaya S N Ojha

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      An alloy containing Pb-12% Sn-12% Sb with small addition of copper and arsenic was spray deposited employing two different atomization gas pressure and nozzle to substrate distances. The temperature of the spray-deposit was measured during deposition at a distance of 2 and 10 mm above the substrate-deposit interface. Thermal profile data indicated small variation in temperature with time during deposition stage whereas during post deposition stage an exponential decrease in temperature was recorded. Second phase particle size along the thickness of the deposit varied from 4 to 8 μm compared to 70 to 80 μm size of these particles in the as cast alloy. Maximum porosity occurred in the section of the deposit near the contact surface of the substrate and also in its peripheral regions. X-ray diffraction analysis exhibited the formation of additional Cu2Sb phase in the spray-deposit and CuSn and Cu3.3Sb phases in atomized powders compared to that of the as cast alloy. The microstructural evolution during spray deposition of this alloy is discussed.

    • Non-equilibrium solidification of undercooled droplets during atomization process

      Prashant Shukla R K Mandal S N Ojha

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      Thermal history of droplets associated with gas atomization of melt has been investigated. A mathematical model, based on classical theory of heterogeneous nucleation and volume separation of nucleants among droplets size distribution, is described to predict undercooling of droplets. Newtonian heat flow condition coupled with velocity dependent heat transfer coefficient is used to obtain cooling rate before and after nucleation of droplets. The results indicate that temperature profile of droplets in the spray during recalescence, segregated and eutectic solidification regimes is dependent on their size and related undercooling. The interface temperature during solidification of undercooled droplets rapidly approaches the liquidus temperature of the alloy with a subsequent decrease in solid–liquid interface velocity. A comparison in cooling rates of atomized powder particles estimated from secondary dendrite arm spacing measurements are observed to be closer to those predicted from the model during segregated solidification regime of large size droplets.

    • Microstructure and electrical conductivity of Al–SiCp composites produced by spray forming process

      V C Srivastava S N Ojha

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      Al–SiCp composites have been synthesized by spray forming process with variation in particle flow rate, size of reinforcement particles and their volume fraction. The microstructure of composites and their electrical conductivity have been investigated. The results showed a uniform dispersion of large size particulate phase in the matrix of the primary 𝛼-phase with its equiaxed grain morphology. However, clustering of small size particles was observed at the grain boundary and grain junctions. The grain size of the composite materials was observed to be lower than that of the base Al-alloy. The composite materials invariably indicated their lower electrical conductivity compared to that of the monolithic Al-alloy. The electrical conductivity of composites decreased with increase in the volume fraction and decrease in size of the reinforcement particles. A high flow rate of particles during spray deposition resulted in a decrease in its conductivity. These results are explained in the light of thermal mismatch between the matrix and the reinforcement phases resulting in generation of high dislocation density. The droplet-particle interaction and resulting microstructure evolution during the spray deposition of the composites are discussed.

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