Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Gel combustion synthesis of fluorine-doped tin oxide and its characteristics: applying D-optimal factorial design of experiment


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      Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) nano-powders were synthesized by a gel combustion method. To analyse the effect of processing factors and their interactions and to achieve an equation for nano-powder particle size in termsof code factors, D-optimal factorial design was used. Stannous chloride penta-hydride, ammonium fluoride and citric acid were used to synthesize the FTO nano-powders. The structure, morphology and composition of the synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results revealed the formation of homogenous FTO nano-powders with an average particle size of 20 nm and equiaxed morphology in the concentration of precursor 0.2, citric acid to precursor molar ratio of 1 and pH of 0.5. The average particle size increased as the concentration of the precursor, citric acid to precursor molar ratio and pH increased from 0.2 to 1, 1 to 3 and 0.5 to 3, respectively. Citric acid to precursor molar ratio, concentration of the precursor and the pH had the most significant effect on the synthesis of the FTO nano-powders, respectively.

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