R D K Misra
Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science
Volume 11 Issue 4 December 1988 pp 337-346
A new experimental approach to the evaluation of chemical segregation of solute elements in ultrasonically gas atomized aluminium-alloy powders using X-ray spectral data of scanning electron microprobe analyser is described. The experimentally obtained chemical segregation data is compared with the conventional method of quantitative analysis and with theoretical predictions as determined from Scheil’s approach to the evaluation of elemental segregation during the solidification process. A comparison of experimental and theoretical predictions confirms the validity of the experimental approach in the estimation of solute segregation levels and also suggests that the solidification conditions considered for estimation of microchemical segregation can appropriately be applied to ultrasonically gas atomized powders.
Volume 12 Issue 5 December 1989 pp 481-493
A methodology for evaluating the reactivity of titanium with mould materials during casting has been developed. Microhardness profiles and analysis of oxygen contamination have provided an index for evaluation of the reactivity of titanium. Microhardness profile delineates two distinct regions, one of which is characterised by a low value of hardness which is invariant with distance. The reaction products are uniformly distributed in the metal in this region. The second is characterised by a sharp decrease in microhardness with distance from the metal-mould interface. It represents a diffusion zone for solutes that dissolve into titanium from the mould. The qualitative profiles for contaminants determined by scanning electron probe microanalyser and secondary ion mass spectroscopy in the as-cast titanium were found to be similar to that of microhardness, implying that microhardness can be considered as an index of the contamination resulting from metal-mould reaction.
Volume 14 Issue 6 December 1991 pp 1309-1322
The influence of vanadium on grain boundary segregation of phosphorus has been studied in iron and iron-carbon alloys by means of fracture experiments in a scanning Auger microprobe. The emphasis here is to study the effects of vanadium on the interaction processes operative under circumstances when structure in the interior of the grain (in the present case carbide formation) and grain boundary segregation form simultaneously. It is emphasized that to predict and analyse the behaviour of an alloy, it is important to consider atomic interactions both at the grain boundaries and in the grain interior and that between the constituents and the grain boundaries. The study suggests that the principal determining factor in the scavenging or retardation of migration of phosphorus to the grain boundaries is whether vanadium is present in the combined form (say, carbide) or is available in solid solution form. When vanadium is present in solid solution form, grain boundary segregation of phosphorus is low because of the chemical interaction of vanadium and phosphorus. However, as carbon is increasingly introduced in the alloy, vanadium now preferentially reacts with carbon in view of higher interaction for carbon as compared to phosphorus. A consequence of this is the increase in the grain boundary concentration of phosphorus. In such a situation the presence of excess carbon in addition to what is stoichiometrically required to precipitate the entire vanadium as vanadium carbides, serves as a palliative with regard to the reduction in the intergranular concentration of phosphorus. This palliative behaviour is explained in terms of the sitecompetition model. An effort is also made to examine the behaviour of segregating elements in terms of whole range of probable interactions (both at the grain boundaries and in the grain interior) and chemical interaction energies.
Volume 43, 2020
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