P K Khare
Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science
Volume 20 Issue 5 August 1997 pp 699-705
The electrical transport behaviour of ferrocene mixed poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films (≈ 20 µm in thickness) deposited by the isothermal immersion technique has been studied in the temperature range of 333–373 K and field from (2·0–4·0)×104 V/cm. It has been found that at higher fields and temperatures, the observed conduction behaviour could be consistently described by the Richardson-Schottky emission. The increase in current due to doping has been attributed to the formation of charge transfer complexes. The dopant molecules act as an additional trapping centre and provide a link between polymer molecules in amorphous region leading to the formation of charge transfer complex.
Volume 20 Issue 7 October 1997 pp 1001-1009
A study of the spontaneous response currents from the metal-iodine doped polyvinyl pyrrolidone-metal (MPM) systems, on thermal stimulation at a constant rate, has been made with similar (Al-Al, Ag-Ag and Au-Au) and dissimilar (Al-Cu/Ag/Ni/PbZn) electrode systems. Thermograms of spontaneous current emission of iodine-doped PVP films exhibit two maxima around 90 ± 10°C and 130–160°C in the first heating run, whereas with the second heating run a single peak is found around 140–170°C. The magnitude and direction of current depend on the choice and combination of electrode materials. The position of the current peak in the thermal spectrum shifts with different heating run. A temperature dependence of open-circuit voltage (OCV) is also reported and it was found that OCV varied linearly with the difference in electrode work functions. The active centres of PVP are the carbonyl group of double-bond tertiary nitrogen atom (> N-C=O), and thus the charge transfer complexes are formed with iodine in PVP. The spontaneously-generated current is discussed in terms of weak complex formation with the water molecules and the liberation of different types of charges.
Volume 21 Issue 2 April 1998 pp 139-147
A detailed study of electrical conduction mechanism in bimetallized ferrocene-doped polyvinyl pyrrolidone films was carried out. The measurements were carried out on films of about 20 μm thick, in the field range of (2.0–8.0) x 104 V/cm at temperatures ranging from 363 to 423 K. An investigation of the effect of impurity such as ferrocene in the polymer matrix was undertaken. Lowering of activation energy and increase in current due to doping were observed. The results showed that the charge carriers were generated by field-assisted lowering of coulombic barriers at the traps and were conducted through the bulk of the material by a hopping process between the localized states by a Jonscher-Ansari modified Poole-Frenkel mechanism. The dependence of current and activation energy on the ferrocene concentration is explained on the basis of charge transfer type of interaction between dopant and polymeric material.
Volume 21 Issue 3 June 1998 pp 207-212
Depolarization current characteristics of solution grown pure ethyl cellulose (EC) films of about 20
Volume 22 Issue 2 April 1999 pp 109-113 Polymers
Mechanisms of charge generation and its persistence in one and both-side vacuum-aluminized ethyl cellulose (EC):polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blend thermoelectrets, prepared under different fields (10, 25, 50 and 100 kV/cm) and temperatures (40, 60, 80 and 100°C), have been analysed using short- and open-circuit thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) technique. The TSDCs were recorded by reheating the samples at a linear heating rate of 4°C/min. The TSDC thermograms of polyblends containing EC:PMMA in different weight ratio are, in general, characterized with two peaks in lower and higher temperature regions. However, the polarity of the peaks was found to be just opposite in short- and open-circuit TSDC measurements. Moreover, results on 97:3, 93:7 and 90:10 EC:PMMA polyblends indicated that the current increases with concentration of PMMA. The results indicate the existence of heterocharge due to dipole orientation and ionic charge drift together with the injection of charge carriers from electrodes with their subsequent localization in surface and bulk traps. Further, the chances of charge trapping in polyblends, at the interfaces are greater than in the individual polymers.
Volume 22 Issue 6 October 1999 pp 1003-1008 Electrical Properties
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