Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Chemical pressure-stabilized post spinel-NaMnSnO$_4$ as potential cathode for sodium-ion batteries


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      Spinel LiMn$_2$O$_4$ is a popular cathode material in lithium-ion batteries due to its high operating voltage and reversible specific capacity. Synthesizing analogous NaMn$_2$O$_4$ in the spinel structure, for sodium-ion batteries, is challenging due to the thermodynamic instability of the compound, mostly arising due to Jahn–Teller distortion of the Mn$^{3+}$ centre. However, post-spinel NaMn$_2$O$_4$ (named as such because the compounds were initially achieved by subjecting a spinel phase to high pressure) could be synthesized at a high temperature and pressure (1373 K and 4.5 GPa, respectively) and is found to be stable at standard conditions. Also, these compounds have a lower ion diffusion barrier than their respective spinels. In this work, an attempt has been made to induce chemical pressure within the system by the use of aheavy cation, i.e., Sn$^{4+}$ in the framework, to synthesize post-spinel NaMnSnO$_4$ at ambient pressure conditions. The asprepared NaMnSnO$_4$ samples are characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy and galvanostatic cycling with potential limitation measurements.

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