• P K Khare

      Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Dielectric properties of solution-grown-undoped and acrylic-acid-doped ethyl cellulose

      P K Khare Sandeep K Jain

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      Dielectric capacities and losses were measured, in the temperature (50–170°C) and frequency (01–100 kHz range), for undoped and acrylic acid (AA) doped ethyl cellulose (EC) films (thickness about 20 μm) with progressive increase in the concentration of dopant in the polymer matrix. The variation of capacity with temperature is attributed to thermal expansion in the lower temperature region to the orientation of dipolar molecules in the neighbourhood of glass transition temperature (Tg) and random thermal motion of molecules aboveTg. The dielectric losses exhibit a broad peak. Doping with AA is found to affect the magnitude and position of the peak. AA is found to have a two-fold action. Firstly, it enhances the chain mobility and secondly, it increases the dielectric loss by forming charge transfer complexes.

    • Electrical transport in ethyl cellulose-chloranil system

      P K Khare R K Pandey P L Jain

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      The charge-transport behaviour in pure and chloranil (Chl) doped ethyl cellulose (EC) system has been studied by measuring the dependence of current on field, temperature, electrode material and dopant concentration. The role of doping molecular concentration in the polymer matrix and modification in the conduction characteristics are studied. Lowering of the activation energy due to doping was observed. The current was found to increase with an increase in the chloranil concentration. An explanation for this has been attempted on the basis of formation of molecular aggregates between chloranil molecules and ethoxy groups of ethyl cellulose. It is suggested that chloranil occupies interstitial positions between the polymer chains and assists in carrier transportation by reducing the hopping barriers. The current-voltage characteristics of different samples are analyzed using space charge limited current theory and quantitative information about the transport parameters is derived. The values of effective drift mobility and trapped charge carrier concentration which result in the build up of space charge have been calculated.

    • Electric current arising from unpolarized polyvinyl formal

      P K Khare P L Jain R K Pandey

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      An appreciable electric current is observed in a system consisting of a polyvinyl formal (PVF) film in a sandwich configuration, in the temperature range 30–110°C. The maximum value of the current during first heating is found to be of the order of 10−10 A and its thermograms exhibit one transition (i.e. current peak) at around 60°C. The position of the current peak in thermal spectrum shifts with the heating rate. A temperature dependence of the open circuit voltage is also observed. The activation energy of the process responsible for the current is determined. The magnitude of the current is more in the case of dissimilar electrode systems. It is proposed that the electric current arising from unpolarized metal-polymer-metal system is a water activated phenomenon, which is influenced by the transitional changes of the polymer.

    • Effect of doping on TSD relaxation in cellulose acetate films

      P K Khare P L Jain R K Pandey

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      Thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) studies have been performed on solution grown cellulose acetate films doped with different concentrations of acrylic acid (AA) prepared at the poling temperatures (40–75°C) with poling fields (10–50 kV/cm). The TSDC spectra of pure and AA doped CA films reveal two relaxation peaks at 80°C and 180 ±2°C, having activation energies centred around 0.25 and 0.55 eV. The phenomena of the existence of these current maxima have been analyzed and discussed in terms of the molecular motion of the polar side groups and release of the remaining part of the frozen dipoles by their cooperative motion with adjoining segments of the main polymer chain. The peak currents, released charge and activation energies associated with the peaks are affected by AA doping. The effect of doping with acrylic acid on the discharge current indicates the formation of molecular aggregates

    • Charging transient in polyvinyl formal

      P K Khare P L Jain R K Pandey

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      In the present paper charging and discharging transient currents in polyvinyl formal (PVF) were measured as a function of temperatures (40–80°C), poling fields (9.0 × 103–9.0 × 104 V/cm) and electrode combinations (Al–Al, Au–Al, Zn–Al, Bi–Al, Cu–Al and Ag–Al). The current–time characteristics have different values of slope lying between 0.42–0.56 and 1.42–1.63. The polarization is considered to be due to dipolar reorientation associated with structural motions and space charge relaxations due to trapping of injected charge carriers in energetically distributed traps.

    • Study of polarization and relaxation phenomena of polyblend films of poly(vinyl chloride) and poly(methyl methacrylate)

      Alkesh Pal P K Khare

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      Thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC) studies were carried out on pure poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(vinyl chloride) and polyblends (of various weight ratios, 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30) as a function of polarizing fields at constant temperature, to study the polarization and relaxation phenomena in them. For PVC and different blends a peak around 140–180 °C and for PMMA two peaks at around 95 and 165 °C were observed. No regular variation in peak position for PMMA and blends was observed. The various TSDC parameters i.e. activation energy, charge released and relaxation times were calculated. In the blend samples it is suggested that the chains are so entangled that in the total polarization the dipolar contribution is less and the observed polarization seems to be mainly due to the formation of induced dipoles and an increase in free volume and mobility of charge carriers due to a plasticization effect.

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