• Navin Chand

      Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Effect of addition of polycarbonate on sheared flow of red mud-filled isotactic polypropylene

      Navin Chand S A R Hashmi

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      Different volume fractions of polycarbonate (PC) were incorporated to improve thermal stability of red mud (RM) filled polypropylene (PP). Effects of PC addition in RM filled PP on shear stress, melt viscosity, and melt elasticity have been determined under different shear rates by using a capillary rheometer. With the increase in shear rate, addition of PC in RM-filled PP reduced its shear stress and melt viscosity. However, recoverable shear strain increased with PC content in the blend.

    • Development, structure and strength properties of PP/PMMA/FA blends

      Navin Chand S R Vashishtha

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      A new type of flyash filled PP/PMMA blend has been developed. Structural and thermal properties of flyash (FA) filled polypropylene (PP)/polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blend system have been determined and analysed. Filled polymer blends were developed on a single screw extruder. Strength and thermal properties of FA filled and unfilled PP/PMMA blends were determined. Addition of flyash imparted dimensional and thermal stability, which has been observed in scanning electron micrographs and in TGA plot. Increase of flyash concentration increased the initial degradation temperature of PP/PMMA blend. The increase of thermal stability has been explained based on increased mechanical interlocking of PP/PMMA chains inside the hollow structure of flyash.

    • Role of PET in improving wear properties of PP in dry sliding condition

      Somit Neogi S A R Hashmi Navin Chand

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      The sliding wear of isotactic polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and their blends was evaluated as a function of applied pressure and composition against a stainless steel counter face in dry condition. Wear rate decreases with the addition of PET in the blend. The wear was observed in two stages, the moderate wear and high wear while increasing the applied pressure on test samples. The addition of PET in PP helps in increasing the limit of moderate wear towards the high-pressure side. Microstructure and worn surfaces of samples were observed by scanning electron microscope. The wear phenomenon has been discussed based on wear losses and worn surfaces.

    • Evaluation of a.c. conductivity behaviour of graphite filled polysulphide modified epoxy composites

      Navin Chand Deepak Jain

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      Composites of epoxy resin having different amounts of graphite particles have been prepared by solution casting method. Temperature dependence of dielectric constant, tan 𝛿 and a.c. conductivity was measured in the frequency range, 1–20 kHz, temperature range, 40–180°C for 0.99, 1.96 and 2.91 wt% graphite filled and unfilled epoxy composites. It was observed that the dielectric constant, tan 𝛿 and a.c. conductivity increase with increasing temperature. Near the transition temperature the materials show anomalous behaviour for the observed properties. Peaks of dielectric constant, tan 𝛿 and a.c. conductivity were observed to shift towards lower temperature with increasing frequency. Clear relaxation (tan 𝛿) peaks around 169°C were observed in epoxy resin, which shifted to lower temperature side on increasing the frequency. Addition of 2.91 wt% graphite shifted the tan 𝛿 peaks towards higher temperature side by creating hindrances to the rotation of polymer dipoles. Addition of 2.91 wt% graphite leads to an increased relaxation time 𝜏 of dipoles in polysulphide epoxy from 1.44 × 10-5-3.92 × 10-5 (s) at 90°C by creating the hindrance to the rotation of dipoles.

    • Influence of steady shear flow on dynamic viscoelastic properties of un-reinforced and Kevlar, glass fibre reinforced LLDPE

      Takeshi Kitano S A R Hashmi Navin Chand

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      An experimental study was conducted to observe the effects of parallel-superposed flow condition on viscoelastic properties of LLDPE, Kevlar fibre reinforced LLDPE and hybrid of short glass fibre and Kevlar fibre reinforced LLDPE. Parallel-plate rheometer was employed for these tests. Rheological parameters such as loss modulus (𝐺″) and dynamic viscosity (𝜂′) do not vary significantly on superposing steady state shear with oscillatory shear in the studied range of experiment at 185°C in un-reinforced LLDPE. Kevlar fibre reinforced LLDPE and Kevlar/glass fibre reinforced LLDPE showed significant changes in the flow behaviour under various sets of superposed conditions. Storage modulus (𝐺′), and 𝐺″ become highly sensitive to low oscillatory angular frequencies (𝜔) under superposed conditions. These curves show two different regions with increased 𝜔 value. At low 𝜔 values, parameters 𝐺′ and 𝐺″ change sharply reaching a certain value, thereafter, changes are moderate with increased 𝜔. In case of 𝜂′ a maxima is observed, position of which, depends upon the value of steady shear rate. Maxima shifts towards higher frequencies with the increased steady shear rate.

    • Effects of hybrid composition of LCP and glass fibres on abrasive wear of reinforced LLDPE

      S A R Hashmi Ajay Naik Navin Chand

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      The hybrid of liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) fibres and glass fibres (GF) provide a combination of modulus and toughness to semi-crystalline linear-low-density-polyethylene (LLDPE). LCP and GF fibres reinforced composites were studied using two-body abrasion tester under different applied loads. Two sets of fibre reinforced LLDPE, 10 and 20 vol%, were investigated. The contents of LCP and glass fibres were varied as 25, 50, 75 and 100 vol% of overall volume of fibres in LLDPE. The effect of replacing glass fibre with LCP fibre on wear is reported. Wear loss increased with the applied loads and glass fibre contents in LLDPE. The replacements of glass fibres with LCP fibres improved abrasive wear resistance of composite. The composite containing 20 vol% of glass fibres in LLDPE showed the specific wear rate nearly double to that of LCP fibre reinforced LLDPE. Incorporation of LCP fibre improved wear resistance of glass fibre reinforced LLDPE. Worn surfaces were studied using SEM. Glass fibres were broken in small debris and removed easily whereas LCP fibres yielded to fibrillation during abrasive action. The overall wear rate was governed by the composition and test conditions.

    • Investigations on gradient a.c. conductivity characteristics of bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus)

      Navin Chand Deepak Jain Archana Nigrawal

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      Effect of temperature and frequency variation on a.c. conductivity of bamboo was determined by using a 4274 A Multi-Frequencies LCR meter. Electrical measurements were carried out in the temperature range 24–120°C and in the frequency range 4–100 kHz. It was observed that the a.c. conductivity increased initially and then decreased with increase of temperature and frequencies. The increase of distance from outer surface to the inner surface side increased the a.c. conductivity values and showed the grading in a.c. conductivity behaviour. Two phases of a.c. conductivity behaviour with temperature exist in bamboo. At 10 mm distance a.c. conductivity suddenly increases which is the critical depth from skin for this bamboo. Increase of temperature, at all the frequencies increases the a.c. conductivity initially and then decreases. Downward peaks in a.c. conductivities are observed at all the frequencies due to the presence of moisture in bamboo, which liberated on heating. Sharp peak is observed in case of sample 4, which is inner most strip. Maximum sharp peak is observed at lowest 4 kHz frequency.

    • Investigations on d.c. conductivity behaviour of milled carbon fibre reinforced epoxy graded composites

      Navin Chand Archana Nigrawal

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      This paper reports the d.c. conductivity behaviour of milled carbon fibre reinforced polysulphide modified epoxy gradient composites. Milled carbon fibre reinforced composites having 3 vol. % of milled carbon fibre and poly sulphide modified epoxy resin have been developed. D.C. conductivity measurements are conducted on the graded composites by using an Electrometer in the temperature range from 26°C to 150°C. D.C. conductivity increases with the increase of distance in the direction of centrifugal force, which shows the formation of graded structure with the composites. D.C. conductivity increases on increase of milled carbon fibre content from 0.45 to 1.66 vol.%. At 50°C, d.c. conductivity values were 1.85 × 10-11, 1.08 × 10-11 and 2.16 × 10-12 for samples 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The activation energy values for different composite samples 1, 2 and 3 are 0.489, 0.565 and 0.654 eV, respectively which shows decrease in activation energy with increase of fibre content.

    • Morphology, thermal, electrical and electrochemical stability of nano aluminium-oxide-filled polyvinyl alcohol composite gel electrolyte

      Navin Chand Neelesh Rai S L Agrawal S K Patel

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      In the present work, an attempt has been made to develop nano aluminium oxide (Al2O3)-filled polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite gel electrolytes. Surface morphological studies, thermal behaviour, electrochemical stability and electrical characterization of these composite gel electrolytes have been performed. An increase in the concentration of Al2O3 in composite gel electrolytes increases the amorphous characteristics of pure PVA. Bulk conductivity of composite gel electrolytes increases by an order of magnitude on addition of a nano filler. Maximum conductivity of 5.81 × 10-2 S/cm is observed for 6 wt% Al2O3-filled polymer gel composite electrolytes. Temperature dependence of electrical conductivity shows a combination of Arrhenius and Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher (VTF) nature. Maximum current stability during oxidation and reduction cycle is noticed for 6 wt% Al2O3-filled PVA composite electrolyte, viz. ±1.65 V.

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