• N L Singh

      Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Electrical properties of ion irradiated polypropylene films

      N L Singh Anita Sharma V Shrinet A K Rakshit D K Avasthi

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      The effect of high-energy (50 MeV) Li3+ ion beam irradiation on polypropylene (PP) film has been studied in the fluence range 2.4 × 1012-1.5 × 1014 ions/cm2. The a.c. electrical properties of PP films were measured in the frequency range from 0.05–100 kHz, and at temperature range between 30 and 140°C. This study indicates two peaks at 60°C and 120°C with comparatively high magnitudes. There is an exponential increase in conductivity with log of frequency and the effect is significant at higher fluences. The loss factor (tan 𝛿) vs frequency plot suggests that PP film based capacitors may be useful below 10 kHz. The capacitance is constant over a wide temperature range up to 130°C. FTIR spectra of the PP films before and after irradiation indicate that intensity of C–H stretching vibration at 2900 cm-1 is modified. The presence of many new peaks with the increase of fluence suggests the formation of alkanes and alkynes which might be responsible for the observed changes in the dielectric and electrical properties of PP films.

    • Proton induced modification in makrofol-DE

      N L Singh Nilam Shah K P Singh

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      Irradiation effects of a 3 MeV proton beam on polycarbonate (makrofol-DE (MFD)) have been studied with respect to its electrical, thermal and structural behaviour by using an LCR meter, DSC/TGA and FTIR spectroscopy. The dielectric loss/constant was observed to change with the fluence. Thermal analysis revealed that chain scission is the dominant phenomena in irradiated samples based on the reduction of its thermal stability by about 19% at a fluence of 1015 ions/cm2, which is also corroborated by FTIR spectra. No significant change in intensity of the absorbance bands of the irradiated sample was observed up to a fluence of 1014 ions/cm2 while on increasing fluence (1015 ions/cm2) the polymer structure was modified. It appears from DSC thermograms that 𝑇g is observed to change with fluence.

    • Analysis of organometallics dispersed polymer composite irradiated with oxygen ions

      N L Singh Anjum Qureshi A K Rakshit D K Avasthi

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      Thin films of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were synthesized. Ferric oxalate was dispersed in PMMA films. These films were irradiated with 80 MeV O6+ ions at a fluence of 1 × 1011 ions/cm2. The radiation induced changes in electrical conductivity, Mössbauer parameter, microhardness and surface roughness were investigated. It is observed that hardness and electrical conductivity of the film increases with the concentration of dispersed ferric oxalate and also with the fluence. It indicates that ion beam irradiation promotes

      the metal to polymer bonding and

      convert the polymeric structure into hydrogen depleted carbon network.

      Thus irradiation makes the polymer harder and more conductive. Before irradiation, no Mössbauer absorption was observed. The irradiated sample showed Mössbauer absorption, which seems to indicate that there is significant interaction between the metal ion and polymer matrix. Atomic force microscopy shows that the average roughness (𝑅a) of the irradiated film is lower than the unirradiated one.

    • Study of microhardness and electrical properties of proton irradiated polyethersulfone (PES)

      Nilam Shah Dolly Singh Sejal Shah Anjum Qureshi N L Singh K P Singh

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      Polyethersulfone (PES) films were irradiated with 3 MeV proton beams in the fluence range 1013–1015 ions/cm2. The radiation induced changes in microhardness was investigated by a Vickers’ microhardness tester in the load range 100–1000 mN and electrical properties in the frequency range 100 Hz–1 MHz by an LCR meter. It is observed that microhardness of the film increases significantly as fluence increases up to 1014 ions/cm2. The bulk hardness of the films is obtained at a load of 400 mN. The increase in hardness may be attributed to the cross linking effect. There is an exponential increase in conductivity with log frequency and the effect of irradiation is significant at higher fluences. The dielectric constant/loss is observed to change significantly due to irradiation. It has been found that dielectric response in both pristine and irradiated samples obey the Universal law and is given by 𝜀 ∝ 𝑓n–1. These results were corroborated with structural changes observed in FTIR spectra of irradiated samples.

    • Effect of ion beam irradiation on metal particle doped polymer composites

      N L Singh Sejal Shah Anjum Qureshi A Tripathi F Singh D K Avasthi P M Raole

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      Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was prepared by solution polymerization method. Different concentrations (10, 20 and 40%) of Ni powder were dispersed in PMMA and the composite films were prepared by casting method. These films were irradiated with 120 MeV Ni$^{10+}$ ions at a fluence of 5 × 1012 ions/cm2. Electrical, structural and chemical properties of the composites were studied by means of an LCR meter, X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and SEM/AFM, respectively. The results showed that the conductivity increases with metal concentration and also with ion beam irradiation. This reveals that ion beam irradiation promotes the metal/polymer bonding and converts polymeric structure into hydrogen depleted carbon network. It was observed from XRD analysis that percentage crystallinity and crystalline size decrease upon irradiation. This might be attributed to rupture of some polymeric bonds, which is also corroborated with FTIR spectroscopic analysis. Ion beam tempts graphitization of polymeric material by emission of hydrogen and/or other volatile gases. Surface morphology of the pristine and irradiated films was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM)/scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Result showed that the surface roughness increases after ion beam irradiation.

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