• MANORANJAN GHOSH

      Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Growth of compact arrays of optical quality single crystalline ZnO nanorods by low temperature method

      Manoranjan Ghosh Ritwik Bhattacharyya A K Raychaudhuri

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      We report the synthesis and optical properties of compact and aligned ZnO nanorod arrays (dia, ∼ 50–200 nm) grown on a glass substrate with varying seed particle density. The suspension of ZnO nanoparticles (size, ∼ 15 nm) of various concentrations are used as seed layer for the growth of nanorod arrays via selfassembly of ZnO from solution. We studied the effect of various growth parameters (such as seeding density, microstructure of the seed layer) as well as the growth time on the growth and alignment of the nanorods. We find that the growth, areal density and alignment of the nanorods depend on the density of seed particles which can be controlled. It is observed that there is a critical density of the seed particles at which nanorod arrays show maximum preferred orientation along [002] direction. The minimum and maximum radius of the aligned nanorods synthesized by this method lie in the range 50–220 nm which depend on the seeding density and time of growth. These nanorods have a bandgap of 3.3 eV as in the case of bulk crystals and show emission in the UV region of the spectrum (∼ 400 nm) due to excitonic recombination and defect related emission in the visible region.

    • Impurity concentration dependent electrical conduction in germanium crystals at low temperatures

      MANORANJAN GHOSH SHREYAS PITALE S G SINGH SHASHWATI SEN S C GADKARI

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      A germanium single crystal of 7 N$+$ purity with a diameter of 45 mm and a length of 100 mm has been grown by the Czochralski method. The structural quality of the crystal has been characterized by Laue diffraction. Electrical conduction and Hall measurements are carried out on samples retrieved from different parts of the crystal along the growth axis. The top part of the crystal exhibits the lowest impurity concentration ($\sim$10$^{12}$ cm$^{−3}$) that gradually increases towards the bottom (10$^{13}$ cm$^{−3}$). The crystal is n-type at room temperature and the resistivity shows a non-monotonic temperature dependence. There is a transition from n-type to p-type conductivity below room temperature at which bulk resistivity shows a maximum and dip in carrier mobility. The intrinsic to extrinsic transition region shifts towards room temperature as the impurity concentration increases and it reflects the purity level of the crystal. A similar trend is observed in the boron-implanted high purity germanium (HPGe) crystal at different doping levels. The phenomena can be understood as a result of interplay between a temperature dependent conduction mechanism driven by an impurity band and an intrinsic carrier in Ge crystalshaving fairly low acceptor concentrations (<10$^{12}$ cm$^{−3}$).

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