• LING YANG

      Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Effects of Bi doping on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PLBZT ferroelectric thin films synthesized by sol–gel processing

      Hua Wang Li Liu Ji-Wen Xu Chang-Lai Yuan Ling Yang

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      [Pb0.95(La1−𝑦Bi𝑦)0.05][Zr0.53Ti0.47]O3 (PLBZT) ferroelectric thin films have been synthesized on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass by sol–gel processing. PLBZT thin films were annealed at a relatively low temperature of 550 °C in oxygen ambient. Effects of Bi doping on structure, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PLBZT were investigated. Bi doping is useful in crystallization of PLBZT films and promoting grain growth. When the Bi-doping content 𝑦 is not more than 0.4, an obvious improvement in dielectric properties and leakage current of PLBZT was confirmed. However, when the Bi-doping content is more than 0.6, the pyrochlore phase appears and the remnant polarization 𝑃r of PLBZT thin films is smaller than that of (Pb1−𝑥La𝑥)(Zr1−𝑦 Ti𝑦)O3 (PLZT) thin films without Bi doping. PLBZT thin films with excessive Bi-doping content are easier to fatigue than PLZT thin films.

    • Electrical properties of Ba0.7Bi0.3Fe0.9Sn0.1O3–BaCo$_{0.02}^{II}$ Co$_{0.04}^{III}$Bi0.94O3 thick film thermistors with wide-range adjustable parameters

      Changlai Yuan Yun Yang Ying Luo Ling Yang Guohua Chen Xinyu Liu

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      A novel (1−𝑥)Ba0.7Bi0.3Fe0.9Sn0.1O3-𝑥BaCo$_{0.02}^{II}$ Co$_{0.04}^{III}$Bi0.94O3 (0.2 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 0.9) negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thick film thermistors with high thermistor constant was prepared by screen printing. The values of room-temperature resistivity, thermistor constant and activation energy of the thick film thermistors, increasing with the addition of Ba0.7Bi0.3Fe0.9Sn0.1O3, are in the range of 35.5 𝛺cm-1.34 M𝛺 cm, 2067–6139 K and 0.177-0.527 eV, respectively. This means that the electrical properties of the thick films are adjustable at a wide range, depending on the compositions. Impedance analysis shows that the magnitude of thick film bulk resistance is mainly attributed to the contribution of grain boundary.

    • Structure and properties of (1−x)[(K$_{0.5}$Na$_{0.5}$)NbO$_3$–LiSbO$_3$]– xBiFe$_{0.8}$Co$_{0.2}$O$_3$ lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

      HUA WANG XIAYAN ZHAO JIWEN XU XIA ZHAI LING YANG

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      Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics $(1−x)$[0.95(K$_{0.5}$Na$_{0.5}$)NbO$_3$–0.05LiSbO$_3$]–$x$BiFe$_{0.8}$Co$_{0.2}$O$_{3}$(KNN–LS–$x$BFC) were prepared by a conventional sintering technique. The effect of BFC content on the structure, piezoelectricand electrical properties of KNN–LS ceramics was investigated. The results reveal that the BFC is effective in promoting the sinterability and the electrical properties of the ceramics sintering at low temperature of 1030$^{\circ}$C. Theceramics show a single perovskite structure, in which the tetragonal phase decreases while the orthorhombic phase increases with the increase of $x$. The more the BFC content is, the smaller and homogeneous grains were formed.With the increase of $x$, the $d_{33}$ and the $k_p$ increase to a maximum value and then slightly decrease, but the $Q_m$ increases continuously. As BFC content increases, the Curie temperature $T_c$ and remnant polarization $P_r$ decrease, but the diffusivity of phase transition in KNN–LS ceramics will intensify and the coercive field $E_c$ fluctuate between 1.16 and 1.51 kV mm$^{−1}$. The samples with $x =0.004$ exhibit optimum electrical properties at room temperature ($d_{33} = 268 pC$ N$^{−1}$, $k_p =52$%, $\epsilon_r = 1366$, $\tan \delta =2.11$%, $T_c = 325^{\circ}$C, $P_r = 20.4$ $\mu$C cm$^{−2}$, $E_c =1.16$ kV mm$^{−1}$).

    • Effects of Zn doping concentration on resistive switching characteristics in Ag/La$_{1−x}Zn$_x$MnO$_3$/p$^+$-Si devices

      SHUAISHUAI YAN HUA WANG JIWEN XU LING YANG WEI QIU QISONG CHEN DONG HAN

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      Ag/La$_{1−x}$Zn$_x$MnO$_3$/p$^+$-Si devices with different Zn doping contents were fabricated through sol–gel method. The effects of Zn doping concentration on the microstructure of La$_{1−x}$Zn$_x$MnO$_3$ films, as well as on the resistance switching behaviour and endurance characteristics of Ag/La$_{1−x}$Zn$_x$MnO$_3$/p$^{+}$-Si were investigated. After annealing at 600$^{\circ}$C for 1~h, the La$_{1−x}$Zn$_x$MnO$_3$ ($x = 0.1$, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) are amorphous and have bipolar resistance characteristics, with RHRS/RLRS ratios $>$103. However, the endurance characteristics show considerable differences; $x = 0.3$ shows the best endurance characteristics in more than 1000 switching cycles. The conduction mechanism of the Ag/La$_{1−x}$Zn$_x$MnO$_3$/p$^{+}$-Si is the Schottky emission mode at high resistance state. However, the conduction mechanism at low resistance state varies with Zn doping concentration. The dominant mechanism at $x = 0.1$ is filamentary conduction mechanism, whereas that at $x \ge 0.2$ is space-charge-limited current conduction.

    • Effect of domains configuration on crystal structure in ferroelectric ceramics as revealed by XRD and dielectric spectrum

      JIWEN XU WEIDONG ZENG QINGNING LI LING YANG CHANGRONG ZHOU

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      It is well known that domains and crystal structure control the physical properties of ferroelectrics. The ex-situelectric field-dependent structural study, carried out in unpoled/poled crushed powder and bulk samples for (Li$_{0.5}$Nd$_{0.5}$)$^{2+}$ modified 0.95Bi$_{0.5}$Na$_{0.5}$TiO$_3$−0.05BaTiO$_3$ solid solution, established a correlation between domain configuration andcrystal structure variation. Under applying electric field, the smeared ferroelectric phase structure due to coherence diffractioneffect of nanodomains reappeared due to obsolescent coherence effect associated with the field-induced ordered nanodomains.The macroscopic characterizing techniques of domain configuration such as dielectric constant spectroscopy and X-raydiffraction measurement can provide a basis for understanding the correlation between domains configuration and crystalstructure in ferroelectric ceramics.

    • Rectifying resistance-switching behaviour of Ag/SBTO/STMO/p$^+$-Si heterostructure films

      WENBO ZHANG HUA WANG JIWEN XU GUOBAO LIU HANG XIE LING YANG

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      The Sr$_{0.88}$Bi$_{0.12}TiO$_3$/SrTi$_{0.92}$Mg$_{0.08}$O$_3$ (SBTO/STMO) heterostructure films were prepared on p$^+$-Si substratesby sol–gel spin-coating technique, and the films had good crystallinity and uniform grain distribution. The heterostructure films with a structure of Ag/SBTO/STMO/p$^+$-Si exhibited a bipolar, remarkable resistance-switching characteristic, and $R_{\rm HRS}/R_{\rm LRS} \sim 10^4$. More importantly, the heterostructure films showed rectifying characteristic in the low resistance state (LRS), and the rectification ratio can reach 10$^2$ at $\pm$1 V. The dominant resistive-switching conduction mechanism of high resistance state (HRS) was Ohmic behaviour, and the LRS changed to space charge-limited current(SCLC).

    • Resistance-switching properties of Bi-doped SrTiO$_3$ films for non-volatile memory applications with different device structures

      HUA WANG WENBO ZHANG JIWEN XU GUOBAO LIU HANG XIE LING YANG

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      SrTiO$_3$ and Bi-doped SrTiO$_3$ films were fabricated with different device structures using the sol–gel method for non-volatile memory applications, and their resistance-switching behaviour, endurance and retention characteristics were investigated. SrTiO$_3$ and Sr$_{0.92}$Bi$_{0.08}$TiO$_3$ films grown on Si or Pt have the same phase structure, morphologies and grain size; however, the grain size of the Sr$_{0.92}$Bi$_{0.08}$TiO$_3$ films grown on Si is slightly larger than those of the SrTiO$_3$ films grown on Si and the Sr$_{0.92}$Bi$_{0.08}$TiO$_3$ films grown on Pt. The SrTiO$_3$ or Sr$_{0.92}$Bi$_{0.08}$TiO$_3$ films grown on Si or Pt all exhibitbipolar resistive-switching behaviour and follow the same conductive mechanism; however, the Ag/Sr$_{0.92}$Bi$_{0.08}$TiO$_3$/Si device possesses the highest $R_{\rm HRS}/R_{\rm LRS}$ of 10$^5$ and the best endurance and retention characteristics. The doping of Bi is conducive to enhance the $R_{\rm HRS}/R_{\rm LRS}$ of the SrTiO$_3$ films; meanwhile, the Si substrates help improve the endurance and retention characteristics of the Sr$_{0.92}$Bi$_{0.08}$TiO$_3$ films.

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