K Narasimha Rao
Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science
Volume 26 Issue 2 February 2003 pp 239-245 Thin Films
Deposition of durable thin film coatings by vacuum evaporation on acrylic substrates for optical applications is a challenging job. Films crack upon deposition due to internal stresses and leads to performance degradation. In this investigation, we report the preparation and characterization of single and multi-layer films of TiO2, CeO2, Substance2 (E Merck, Germany), Al2O3, SiO2 and MgF2 by electron beam evaporation on both glass and PMMA substrates. Optical micrographs taken on single layer films deposited on PMMA substrates did not reveal any cracks. Cracks in films were observed on PMMA substrates when the substrate temperature exceeded 80°C. Antireflection coatings of 3 and 4 layers have been deposited and characterized. Antireflection coatings made on PMMA substrate using Substance2 (H2) and SiO2 combination showed very fine cracks when observed under microscope. Optical performance of the coatings has been explained with the help of optical micrographs.
Volume 27 Issue 3 June 2004 pp 295-301 Thin Films
Transparent conducting tin oxide thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation and spray pyrolysis methods. Structural, optical and electrical properties were studied under different preparation conditions like substrate temperature, solution flow rate and rate of deposition. Resistivity of undoped evaporated films varied from 2.65 × 10-2 𝛺-cm to 3.57 × 10-3 𝛺-cm in the temperature range 150–200°C. For undoped spray pyrolyzed films, the resistivity was observed to be in the range 1.2 × 10-1 to 1.69 × 10-2 𝛺-cm in the temperature range 250–370°C. Hall effect measurements indicated that the mobility as well as carrier concentration of evaporated films were greater than that of spray deposited films. The lowest resistivity for antimony doped tin oxide film was found to be 7.74 × 10-4 𝛺-cm, which was deposited at 350°C with 0.26 g of SbCl3 and 4 g of SnCl4 (SbCl3/SnCl4 = 0.065).
Evaporated films were found to be amorphous in the temperature range up to 200°C, whereas spray pyrolyzed films prepared at substrate temperature of 300–370°C were polycrystalline. The morphology of tin oxide films was studied using SEM.
Volume 31 Issue 1 February 2008 pp 15-18 Polymers
Conjugated polymers are promising materials for electrochromic device technology. Aqueous dispersions of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-(PEDOT) were spin coated onto transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coated glass substrates. A seven-layer electrochromic device was fabricated with the following configuration: glass/transparent conducting oxide (TCO)/PEDOT (main electrochromic layer)/gel electrolyte/prussian blue (counter electrode)/TCO/glass. The device fabricated with counter electrode (Prussian blue) showed a contrast of 18% and without counter electrode showed visible contrast of 5% at 632 nm at a voltage of 1.9 V. The comparison of the device is done in terms of the colouration efficiency of the devices with and without counter electrode.
Volume 42 | Issue 5
Click here for Editorial Note on CAP Mode