Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Experimental investigations into viscosity, pH and electrical conductivity of nanofluid prepared from palm kernel fibre and a mixture of water and ethylene glycol


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      Extensive research has been carried out on the synthesis and applications of nanofluid produced from metals, nonmetals and their oxides. However, little or no attention has been paid to bio-based nanoparticles. The need for the use ofbio-based nanoparticles and bio-based nanofluids is imperative to mitigate over-dependence on toxic synthetic nanoparticles. This idea is also in line with renewable and sustainable developmental goals.Moreover, bio-based materials like palm kernel fibre (PKF) constitute environmental waste in some quarters and its conversion to useful products for engineering application will take a long time in solving environmental issues and health hazards. In this study, the top-down approach was used to synthesize nanoparticles from PKF using a ball-milling machine. The PKF nanoparticles with an average size of $\sim$40 nmwere dispersed in an ethylene glycol (EG)/water (50:50) base fluid up to 0.5% of the volume fraction. The viscosity, pH and electrical conductivity of PKF–water and EG (50:50) were studied for temperature ranging from 10 to 60$^{\circ}$C. The results showed that the viscosity of the PKF-based nanofluid increases with an increase in volume fraction and decreases exponentially with an increase in the working temperature of the nanofluid. The pH and the electrical conductivity increased as the volume fraction of the PKF nanoparticle was increased from 0.1 to 0.5%. However, the pH decreased with an increase in the temperature while the electrical conductivity increased with an increase in the volume fraction. Since the notable theoretical models in the literature were unable to estimate the viscosity of the PKF–EG/water nanofluid, in the present case an empirical correlation based on dimensional analysis was proposed to estimate the viscosity of the PKF–EG/water nanofluids.

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