• G N K Iyengar

      Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science

    • Phase relations and activities in the Co-Ni-O system at 1373 K

      K T Jacob S Srikanth G N K Iyengar

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      The tie-lines delineating equilibria between CoO-NiO and Co-Ni solid solutions in the ternary Co-Ni-O system at 1373 K have been determined by electron microprobe andedax point count analysis of the oxide phase equilibrated with the alloy. The oxygen potentials corresponding to the tie-line compositions have been measured using a solid oxide galvanic cell with calcia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte and Ni + NiO reference electrode. Activities in the metallic and oxide solid solution have been derived using a new Gibbs-Duhem integration technique. Both phases exhibit small positive deviations from ideality; the values ofGE/X1X2 are 2640 J mol−1 for the metallic phase and 2870 J mol−1 for the oxide solid solution.

    • Metallurgical characteristics of electroslag-refined MDN 250 maraging steel

      K R Udupa D H Sastry G N K Iyengar

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      MDN-250 maraging steel was electroslag-refined in a 350 kVA DC ESR unit using a slag of composition, CaF2-65, CaO-9, Al2O3-2O, TiO2-5, and MoO3-1 (wt % basis) in straight as well as reverse polarity modes of melting. The chemical homogeneity of the ingots was established by X-ray fluorescence, plasma scan and spectrovac methods. The dissolved gas content (O and N) in the ingots was determined by a LECO gas analyser. Volume fraction, density and size distribution of inclusions in the ingots and the electrode were determined in a Quantimet image analyser. These results were supplemented by EPMA and SEM studies on selected inclusions. Mechanical properties of the ingots in the heat-treated and aged conditions were assessed and compared with those of the electrode material.

      The present results confirm that the reverse polarity mode of melting is best suited for producing quality maraging steels for the ingots produced by this mode of melting were found to possess superior metallurgical characteristics in terms of cleanliness and mechanical properties compared to those produced by the straight polarity ESR route and other conventional methods.

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