Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science
Volume 14 Issue 4 August 1991 pp 1023-1027 International Conference On Superconductivity—III
We have investigated the variation of transition-temperature and coupling parameter with the composition concentration in La2 −
Volume 16 Issue 2 April 1993 pp 117-126
The composition dependence of transition temperature in some ceramic superconductors (La2−
Volume 17 Issue 4 August 1994 pp 389-393
We have investigated doping effects on the transition temperature (
Volume 18 Issue 7 November 1995 pp 889-900
Based on free electron layered electron gas model of quasi two dimensional CuO2 layers in La(Ba/Sr)CuO superconductors a model potential
Volume 19 Issue 5 October 1996 pp 737-747
The nature of pairing mechanism as well as transition temperature of yttrium cuprates is discussed using the strong coupling theory. An interaction potential has been developed for the layered structure with two conducting CuO2(a–b) layers in a unit cell. The interaction potential properly takes care of electron-electron, electron-phonon and electron-plasmon interactions. Furthermore, the electron-phonon coupling parameter (
Volume 20 Issue 2 April 1997 pp 259-264
We have investigated the effects of oxygen deficiency (
Volume 21 Issue 6 December 1998 pp 451-456 Superconducting Materials
The optical conductivity of optimized doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ (
Volume 21 Issue 6 December 1998 pp 457-462 Superconducting Materials
We have investigated theoretically the effect of oxygen deficiency (
Volume 23 Issue 4 August 2000 pp 267-272 Superconductors
The specific heats of superconducting HoBa2Cu3O7-δ (
Volume 25 Issue 6 November 2002 pp 549-551
Many semiconductor integrated circuit manufacturing processes require high dose of implantation at very low energies. Conventional beam line ion implantation system suffers from low beam current at low energies, therefore, cannot be used economically for high dose applications. Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is emerging as a potential technique for such implantations. This method offers high dose rate irrespective of implantation energy. In the present study nitrogen ions were implanted using PIII in order to modify the properties of silicon and some refractory metal films. Oxidation behaviour of silicon was observed for different implantation doses. Diffusion barrier properties of refractory barrier metals were studied for copper metallization.
Volume 27 Issue 1 February 2004 pp 31-34 Structural Studies
The crystal structure of 3,3′-dimethoxybiphenyl has been determined by X-ray diffraction methods with an aim of describing the hydrogen interaction in biphenyl derivatives. The title compound crystallizes in monoclinic space group 𝑃21/𝑐 with unit cell dimensions, 𝑎 = 7.706(1), 𝑏 = 11.745(2), 𝑐 = 12.721(2) Å, 𝛽 = 92.31(1)°, 𝑍 = 4 and its structure has been refined up to the reliability index of 3.8%. The average torsion angle about the inter-ring C–C bond is 37.5°. The O1 and O1′ atoms of the methoxy group are deviated by 0.046(1) Å and 0.234(1) Å from the mean planes of respective rings. The crystal cohesion is pronounced due to three-inter-molecular C–H…O hydrogen bonds.
Volume 27 Issue 4 August 2004 pp 337-340 Crystal Growth
The molecular and crystal structure of 2-aniline benzo(2,3-𝑏) cyclopentane-1,3-dione has been determined by X-ray crystallographic techniques. This compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group 𝑃212121 with unit cell parameters: 𝑎 = 5.467(1), 𝑏 = 10.657(3), 𝑐 = 19.602(6) Å; 𝑉 = 1142.01(5) Å3, 𝑍 = 4. The crystal structure has been resolved up to an 𝑅-factor 0.050 for 1129 reflections. All the three rings in the structure are planar. However, the dihedral angle between the phenyl ring and the moiety comprising of a five-membered and six-membered ring is 92.4°. The oxygen atom O1 acts as a trifurcated acceptor and is involved in the formation of three intermolecular interactions.
Volume 28 Issue 2 April 2005 pp 155-171 Superconductors
We consider a two-peak model for the phonon density of states to investigate the nature of electron pairing mechanism for superconducting state in fullerides. We first study the intercage interactions between the adjacent C60 cages and expansion of lattice due to the intercalation of alkali atoms based on the spring model to estimate phonon frequencies from the dynamical matrix for the intermolecular alkali-C60 phonons. Electronic parameter as repulsive parameter and the attractive coupling strength are obtained within the random phase approximation. Transition temperature, 𝑇c, is obtained in a situation when the free electrons in lowest molecular orbital are coupled with alkali-C60 phonons as 5 K, which is much lower as compared to reported 𝑇c (≈ 20 K). The superconducting pairing is mainly driven by the high frequency intramolecular phonons and their effects enhance it to 22 K. To illustrate the usefulness of the above approach, the carbon isotope exponent and the pressure effect are also estimated. Temperature dependence of electrical resistivity is then analysed within the same model phonon spectrum. It is inferred from the two-peak model for phonon density of states that high frequency intramolecular phonon modes play a major role in pairing mechanism with possibly some contribution from alkali-C60 phonon to describe most of the superconducting and normal state properties of doped fullerides.
Volume 28 Issue 3 June 2005 pp 187-198 Review
An overview of general classification scheme, medicinal importance and crystal structure analysis with emphasis on the role of hydrogen bonding in some alkaloids is presented in this paper. The article is based on a general kind of survey while crystallographic analysis and role of hydrogen bonding are limited to only those alkaloids whose three-dimensional structure has been reported by us. The C–H…O hydrogen bonding in the solid state in alkaloids has been found to be predominant and this observation makes the role of hydrogen bonding in organic molecular assemblies very important.
Volume 28 Issue 7 December 2005 pp 651-661 Semiconductors
An effective interaction potential (EIOP) is developed to invoke the pressure induced phase transition from zinc blende (𝐵3) to rocksalt (𝐵1) structure and anharmonic properties in ZnX (X = Se, S, Te) semiconductors. The effective interaction potential incorporates the long range Coulomb interaction, van der Waals interaction and short-range repulsive interaction up to second neighbour ions within the Hafemeister and Flygare approach as well as the charge transfer effects caused by the electron-shell deformation of the overlapping ions. The van der Waals coefficients are computed by the Slater Kirkwood variation method as a first step. Later on, we evaluate volume collapse, second order and third order elastic constants with pressure pointing to the systematic trends in all compounds of zinc blende structure and their thermal properties such as force constant, Gruneisen parameter, compressibility, Debye temperature etc. The vast volume discontinuity in pressure–volume (PV) phase diagram identifies the structural phase transition from zinc blende (𝐵3) to rock salt (𝐵1) structure and is consistent with those revealed from earlier reports.
Volume 29 Issue 3 June 2006 pp 239-242 Biomaterials
The synthesis, X-ray structure and role of intermolecular interactions have been studied in case of 1,3-diphenyl-urea, owing to its medicinal importance. The compound crystallizes in orthorhombic crystal system (space group, 𝑃𝑛𝑎21) with unit cell parameters, 𝑎 = 9.118(3), 𝑏 = 10.558(2), 𝑐 = 11.780(3) Å and 𝑍 = 4. The structure has been solved by direct methods and refined to a final 𝑅-value of 0.0316. The oxygen atom of the carbonyl group is responsible for the existence of two N–H…O intermolecular interactions.
Volume 29 Issue 5 October 2006 pp 433-438 Ceramics and Glasses
The sunlight mediated photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RB) dye was studied using hydrothermally prepared ZnO (𝑇 = 150°C and 𝑃 ∼ 20–30 bars). Zinc chloride was used as the starting material along with sodium hydroxide as a solvent in the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO. Different durations were tried to obtain pure ZnO phase, which was later confirmed through powder X-ray diffraction. The photocatalytic behaviour of the prepared ZnO was tested through the degradation of RB. The disappearance of organic molecules follows first-order kinetics. The effect of various parameters such as initial dye concentration, catalyst loading, pH of the medium, temperature of the dye solution, on the photo degradation of RB were investigated. The thermodynamic parameters of the photodegradation of RB, like energy of activation, enthalpy of activation, entropy of activation and free energy of activation revealed the efficiency of the process. An actual textile effluent containing RB as a major constituent along with other dyes and dyeing auxiliaries was treated using hydrothermally synthesized ZnO and the reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the treated effluent revealed a complete destruction of the organic molecules along with colour removal.
Volume 34 Issue 7 December 2011 pp 1611-1615
The effect of introducing a thin Mo2C (30 nm) layer between Ti and Cu on the thermal stability of Si/SiO2/Ti/Cu system was studied using four-point probe (FPP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The measured value of the sheet resistance in the bi-layered diffusion barrier structure does not show any change up to an annealing temperature of 750°C. The sheet resistance when measured after annealing at 800°C marginally increases but less than twice its value at room temperature. The XRD analysis indicated no copper diffusion and the formation of Cu3Si phase up to 800°C. The bi-layered barrier structure annealed at elevated temperature shows copper-depleted and agglomerated regions. The sheet resistance measurement, study of surface morphology and the XRD analysis confirm that the insertion of thin Mo2C layer increases the thermal stability of the system from 400°C to 750°C. The increased thermal stability of the system is ascribed to longer diffusion path length in the bi-layered system probably because of grain boundaries mismatch at Ti–Mo2C interface.
Volume 35 Issue 5 October 2012 pp 875-884
Pollution by heavy metals like lead (II) is responsible for health hazards and environmental degradation. Adsorption is a prevalent method applied for removal of heavy metal pollutants from water. This study explored adsorption performances of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan for lead (II) abatement from water. Bromine pretreatment alters porosity and specific surface area of chitosan by means of physicochemical interaction with cationic sites of chitosan skeleton, besides imparting anionic alteration at amino linkages of chitosan, to remove lead (II) by chemical interactions on superfluous active sites as characterized by FTIR, SEM, DTA and elemental analysis. Lead adsorptions were studied in batch mode by varying parameters viz. pH, bromine loading, sorbent dosage, initial lead concentration, contact time and temperature. The adsorption equilibrium data was well fitted to Freundlich isotherm and maximum sorption capacity of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan sorbent was 1.755 g/kg with 85–90% lead removal efficiency. Though cost and applicability of sorbent is unproven, yet contrast to raw chitosan derivatives, activated carbons and some resins, 30% bromine pretreated chitosan endow benign and efficient lead abatement technique.
Volume 35 Issue 6 November 2012 pp 977-988
Electrodeposition of nickel/barium hexa-aluminate (Ni/BHA) composite coatings has been carried out from a Watt’s bath on mild steel substrate. BHA powders with plate habit were synthesized by solution combustion synthesis followed by heat treatment to ensure complete conversion to the hexa-aluminate phase. Heat treated material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with X-ray analysis. The dispersion behaviour and stability of BHA suspensions with cationic and anionic surfactants at room temperature were studied by dynamic light scattering under different pH. The influence of BHA concentration in the electrolytic bath, deposition temperature, pH, current density and duty cycle on particle incorporation in the coatings were studied and conditions for maximum particle incorporation were established. Coatings with a roughness of about 0.4 𝜇m were produced by using this technique. Effect of BHA content on microhardness was also investigated. A reasonably good thickness of the coatings was achieved in a given set of conditions.
Volume 36 Issue 3 June 2013 pp 447-456
The powder characteristics of metallic powders play a key role during sintering. Densification and mechanical properties were also influenced by it. The current study examines the effect of heating mode on densification, microstructure, phase compositions and properties of Fe, Fe–2Cu and Fe–2Cu–0.8C systems. The compacts were heated in 2.45 GHz microwave sintering furnaces under forming gas (95%N2–5%H2) at 1120 °C for 60 min. Results of densification, mechanical properties and microstructural development of the microwave-sintered samples were reported and critically analysed in terms of various powder processing steps.
Volume 36 Issue 5 October 2013 pp 931-937
The objective of this investigation is to study the effectiveness of anodized surface of commercial purity titanium (Cp-Ti) on its corrosion behaviour in simulated body fluid (SBF) and proliferation of osteoblast cells on it, to assess its potentiality as a process of surface modification in enhancing corrosion resistance and osseointegration of dental implants. Highly ordered nano-porous oxide layer, with nano-sized pores, is developed on the surface of Cp-Ti through electrochemical anodization in the electrolyte of aqueous solution of 0.5% HF at 15 V for 30 min at 24 °C. The nano-porous feature of the anodized surface is characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Pores of some anodized samples are sealed by exposing the anodized surface in boiling water. Corrosion behaviour of the anodized specimen is studied in Ringer’s solution at 30 ± 2 °C, using electrochemical impedance and cyclic polarization technique. Biocompatibility of the anodized surface is accessed using MG63 osteoblast cells. Both corrosion as well as pitting resistance of Cp-Ti in simulated body fluid are found to be highest in the anodized and sealed condition and followed in decreasing order by those of anodized and unanodized ones. Significantly higher MG63 osteoblast cell proliferations are found on the anodized surface than that on the unanodized one. Anodized Cp-Ti develops nano-size surface pores, like that of natural bone. It enhances corrosion and pitting resistance and also the process of osteoblast cell proliferation on Cp-Ti.
Volume 36 Issue 7 December 2013 pp 1255-1260
The reported specific heat 𝐶\ (𝑇) data of the perovskite manganites, La0.85Sr0.15MnO3 and Er0.8Y0.2MnO3, is theoretically investigated in the temperature domain 3 ≤ 𝑇 ≤ 50 K. Calculations of 𝐶\ (𝑇) have been made within the three-component scheme: one is the fermion and the others are boson (phonon and magnon) contributions.Lattice specific heat is well estimated fromthe Debye temperature for La0.85Sr0.15MnO3 and Er0.8Y0.2MnO3 manganites. Fermion component as the electronic specific heat coefficient is deduced using the band structure calculations. Later on, following double-exchange mechanism the role of magnon is assessed towards specific heat and found that at much low temperature, specific heat shows almost T3/2 dependence on the temperature. The present investigation allows us to believe that electron correlations are essential to enhance the density of states over simple Fermi-liquid approximation in the metallic phase of both the manganite systems. The present numerical analysis of specific heat shows similar results as those revealed from experiments.
Volume 42 | Issue 6
Click here for Editorial Note on CAP Mode