D B Goel
Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science
Volume 26 Issue 4 June 2003 pp 441-447 Biomaterials
Investigations were carried out on aging of a HSLA-100 steel after varying amounts of cold deformation. Mechanical properties (hardness, tensile properties and toughness) were measured and structural changes were studied using optical, TEM and SEM techniques. As a result of various treatments, the hardness and UTS could be significantly improved, but with drastic fall in ductility and impact strength, especially in peak aged conditions. The parameters affecting impact strength were examined and it was concluded that various microstructural features affected toughness through their influence on tensile properties. In this steel the impact strength could be improved by lowering the UTS and increasing the ductility (pct elongation). The improvement in hardness and UTS was attributed to formation of thick precipitate-dislocation tangles. The aging process caused a slow transformation of lath martensite into acicular ferrite due to occurrence of
Volume 28 Issue 2 April 2005 pp 91-96 Alloys and Steels
The fatigue behaviour of 2014 Al-alloy has been studied in various thermomechanically aged conditions. It is observed that fatigue properties can be improved by a thermomechanical treatment, which would reduce the concentrations of dispersoids, provide a relatively uniform deformation structure and produce fine distribution of 𝜃' precipitates. Fine 𝜃' particles inhibit dynamic recovery and produce uniform deformation structure, which improves fatigue behaviour. Presence of dispersoids and coarse precipitate particles leads to the formation of persistent slip bands (PSBs) and a highly heterogeneous deformation structure, which cause damage to fatigue properties.
Volume 28 Issue 3 June 2005 pp 259-265 Alloys and Steels
Influence of cold working and aging on the mechanical properties of a Cu-bearing HSLA-100 steel has been studied. The steel was given solution treatment at 1000°C, followed by cold rolling to 25, 50 and 80 pct deformations and aging at 600°C for various durations. Substantial improvement in hardness and UTS was observed in the peak aged condition of various treatments, but at the expense of ductility and impactenergy. Extensive scanning electron microscopic studies carried out on impact and tensile fracture surfaces suggest that poor impact energy and low ductility in peak aged condition could be associated with inhomogeneous deformation caused by the existence of coherent precipitates. Other parameters adversely affecting toughness and ductility in various stages of cold work and aging may include high stress concentration at high density dislocation network and dislocation–precipitate interface. Overaging in various treatments resulted in higher impact energy and ductility, presumably due to existence of incoherent precipitates and reduction in stress concentration at dislocation cell boundaries. It is observed that a good combination of high hardness and UTS with high impact energy and ductility could be obtained by a treatment suitable to cause coexistence of coherent and incoherent precipitates.
Volume 29 Issue 3 June 2006 pp 281-292 Alloys and Steels
Investigations were carried out on aging of a HSLA-100 steel containing Cu as the major alloying element and Nb, Ti and V as microalloying elements. The aging process after varying amounts of cold deformation was followed by hardness measurements and microstructural changes were studied using light and electron microscopy. Presence of Ti activates the formation of (Nb, Ti)C precipitates and completely suppresses the precipitation of Cu. Even a solution treatment at 1100° C is not sufficient to completely dissolve Nb and Ti in the matrix and undissolved (Nb, Ti)C precipitates were observed in oil quenched state. Strain induced aging at 400°C causes simultaneous coarsening of existing precipitates and nucleation of fresh carbides, which results in multi-stage hardening in this steel. Strong precipitate-dislocation interactions cause retardation in recrystallization of deformation structure leading to retention of high hardness levels even on prolonged aging.
Volume 30 Issue 2 April 2007 pp 73-79 Alloys and Steels
Investigations have been carried out on the effect of cold work and subsequent aging on mechanical properties of a Cu-bearing HSLA-100 steel microalloyed with Nb and Ti. Aging at 400°C after various degrees of cold work (25–70 pct) exhibits multiple hardness peaks. The treatments cause significant improvement in hardness and tensile strength, but at the cost of impact strength. Cold work also causes deterioration in ductility, which again improves on subsequent aging. The C70A treatment involving 70 pct deformation exhibits maximum response to age hardening giving a hardness of 465 VHN and a UTS of 1344 MPa, but with low values of ductility (5 pct) and impact energy (24 J). C50A treatment involving 50 pct cold work and aging results in an optimum combination of mechanical properties. This treatment in the second hardness peak stage yields a hardness of 373 VHN, UTS of 1186 MPa together with a ductility value of 11 pct and impact energy of 109 J. Scanning electron microscopic studies of fracture surfaces reveal that the impact fracture occurs by formation of dimples and nucleation and growth of voids and cracks. Fracture in tensile specimens is caused by formation of voids and cracks at high density striations. Formation of voids and cracks is also assisted by the presence of precipitated carbide particles.
Volume 31 Issue 2 April 2008 pp 115-120 Alloys and Steels
The martensitic stainless steel (termed as 13/4) is currently being used for fabrication of underwater parts in hydroelectric projects. There are, however, several maintenance problems associated with the use of this steel. A nitronic steel (termed as 21–4–N) has been developed as an alternative with the specific aim of overcoming these problems. A comparative study has been made on the erosion behaviour of 13/4 and 21–4–N steels by means of solid particle impingement using gas jet. The eroded surfaces after erosion tests were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. It is observed that the 21–4–N nitronic steel possesses better resistance to erosion in comparison to 13/4 martensitic stainless steel. The austenitic matrix of the nitronic steel possesses high hardness, high tensile toughness and work hardening ability, which results in higher erosion resistance.
Volume 33 Issue 4 August 2010 pp 483-489 Alloys and Steels
In the present investigation, stellite-6, Cr3C2–NiCr and WC–Co–Cr coatings were deposited by DGun on a hot rolled 21Cr–4Ni–N steel meant for fabrication of hydro turbine underwater parts. The coatings have been characterized for microstructure, porosity, microhardness and crystalline nature. The erosion experiments were carried out using an air jet erosion test rig at a velocity of 120 ms-1 and impingement angles of 30° and 90°. Silicon carbide particles of size ranging between 500 and 700 𝜇m were used as erodent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique was used to analyse the nature and mechanism of erosion. Erosion behaviour is observed to be influenced largely by the nature and extent of porosity in the surface coatings.
Volume 37 Issue 2 April 2014 pp 315-319 Electronic Supplementary Material
Microstructure is one of the most important parameters influencing erosion behaviour of materials. The role of carbides in the matrix is very complicated in controlling the erosion rate of the materials. Conflicting results have been reported in the literature about the effect of carbides on erosion resistance. Carbides are of great importance especially as obstacles against the penetration of erosive particles into the material surface. However, they are susceptible to cracking and causing matrix decohesion which may increase the overall erosion rate. In 23-8-N nitronic steel, carbides present in the form of bands are observed to accelerate the erosion rate. Coarse carbides cause depletion of carbon in the austenite matrix which adversely affects the strain hardening tendency thus causing deterioration in erosion resistance of the bulk material. The dissolution of carbides in the austenitic matrix after solution annealing is observed to improve the erosion resistance of 23-8-N nitronic steel.
Volume 42 | Issue 6
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